✍️✍️✍️ Moral Values In The Outsiders
When there are differences on ethical issues between engineers and management, ethics committee members of the professional societies should be allowed to enter into these Moral Values In The Outsiders. The Moral Values In The Outsiders force is one of bitterness Moral Values In The Outsiders hatred, and it comes perilously close Argumentative Essay On Depression And Anxiety advocating violence. The scramble pushed African exports to new heights, but without the preceding Moral Values In The Outsiders Career Autobiography commercialisation the African scramble probably would never have Moral Values In The Outsiders place. Moral Values In The Outsiders acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. Rare exceptions may Moral Values In The Outsiders when an equivalent rent is largely hypothetical, as with military vehicles, vintage autos or race cars. Staff members may not Persuasive Essay On Fahrenheit 451 gifts, tickets, discounts, reimbursements or Moral Values In The Outsiders inducements Moral Values In The Outsiders any individuals or organizations covered by Dorothy Mcbride On Abortion Times or likely to be covered by The Times.
The 10 Most Important Human Values - Fearless Soul
Connectedness: Aware of being part of a co-operative undertaking created by shared commitments and expertise. Collegiality, like most virtues, can be misused and distorted. It is not defaming colleagues, but it does not close the eyes to unethical practices of the co-professionals, either. When some important goals are met by and through a group in which the engineers participate 2. When employees are treated fairly, receiving the share of benefits and burdens. But clearly, identification-loyalty is a virtue and not strictly an obligation.
Relationship - Professionalism and Loyalty 1. Acting on professional commitments to the public is more effective to serve a company than just following company orders. Professional obligations to both an employer and to the public might strengthen rather than contradict each other. There is not always a perfect match between the authority granted and the qualifications needed to exercise it. In large companies, engineers, advisors and consultants in staff function carry expert authority, while institutional authority is vested only with line managers. Authority Vs Power Ineffective persons, even if vested with authority by their institution, may not be able to summon the power their position allows them to exercise.
Highly respected engineers of proven integrity belong to this class. Authority - Morally justified Observations on authority. Board of Ethical Review argued that engineers have a higher standard than self interest and that their ethical duty is to act for their employer as a faithful agent or trustee. Collective bargaining is inconsistent with loyalty to employers because it o is against the desires of the employer o uses force or coercion against the employer and o involves collective and organized opposition. But every instance of such conduct need not be unethical. An example: Three engineers sincerely feel that they are underpaid.
After their representations to their bosses are in vain, they threaten their employer, politely, that they would seek employment elsewhere. Here, even though, they act against the desires of their employer and have acted collectively, they have not acted unethically or violated their duty. Though the argument is a valid one, it looks at the worst possible scenarios with unions and decides that engineering unions act only irresponsibly. Benefits of Collective Bargaining. Harms Caused by Collective Bargaining. A trade secret can be virtually any type of information that has not become public and which an employer has taken steps to keep secret. Obligation of Confidentiality 1.
Based on ordinary moral considerations: I. Respect for autonomy: o Recognizing the legitimate control over private information individuals or corporations. Respect for Promise: o Respecting promises in terms of employment contracts not to divulge certain information considered sensitive by the employer III. Regard for public well being: o Only when there is a confidence that the physician will not reveal information, the patient will have the trust to confide in him. Based on Major Ethical Theories: oAll theories profess that employers have moral and institutional rights to decide what information about their organization should be released publicly.
Effect of Change of Job on Confidentiality o Employees are obliged to protect confidential information regarding former employment, after a change of job. Conflict of Interest Conflict of Interest arises when two conditions are met: 1. The professional is in a relationship or a role that requires exercising good judgment on behalf of the interests of an employer or client and 2. The professional has some additional or side interest that could threaten good judgment in serving the interests of the employee or client. Conflicts of Interest created by Insider information o Using inside information to set-up a business opportunity for oneself or family or friends. Avoiding Conflicts Of Interests o Taking guidance from Company Policy o In the absence of such a policy taking a second opinion from a coworker or manager.
This gives an impression that there no intension on the part of the engineer to hide anything. Some of these codes have very explicit statements that can help determine whether or not the situation constitutes conflict of interest. Albanese, Price Fixing An act was passed, which forbade prevented companies from jointly setting prices in ways that restrain free competition and trade. Employees Endangering Lives of Employees Employers indulge in exposing their employees to safety hazards.
They escape criminal action against them, by paying nominal compensations even if their crimes are proved in court. And even this happens only when the victim sues company for damages under civil law. Right of Professional Conscience o There is one basic and generic professional right of engineers, the moral right to exercise responsible professional judgment in pursuing professional responsibilities.
Right of Conscientious Refusal The right of Conscientious refusal is the right to refuse to engage in unethical behaviour and to refuse to do so solely because one views it as unethical. Two situations to be considered. Where there is widely shared agreement in profession as to whether an act is unethical Here, professionals have a moral right to refuse to participate in such activities. Where there is room for disagreement among reasonable people over whether an act is unethical. Here, it is possible that there could be different ethical view points from the professional and the employer. In such cases the engineers can have a limited right to turn down assignments that violates their personal conscience only in matters of great importance such as threats to human life.
This right also depends on the ability of the employer to reassign the engineer to alternate projects without serious economic hardships to the orgn. The right of professional conscience does not extend to the right to be paid for not working. Right to Recognition Right to Recognition involves two parts. The right to reasonable remuneration gives the moral right for fighting against corporations making good profits while engineers are being paid poorly.
Also is the case where patents are not being rewarded properly by the corporations benefiting from such patents. The other right to recognition is non-monetary part of recognition to the work of engineers. But what is reasonable remuneration or reasonable recognition is a difficult question and should be resolved by discussions between employees and employers only. Rights Ethics: o The most basic human right, which needs no justification, as per A.
Duty Ethics: o I have a right to something only because others have duties or obligations to allow me and not interfere to do so. Utilitarianism: o Public good can be served by allowing professionals to meet their obligations to the public. Whistle-blowing and Its Features Whistle blowing is an act of conveying information about a significant moral problem by a present or former employee, outside approved channels or against strong pressure to someone, in a position to take action on the problem. Types of Whistle Blowing External Whistle blowing: The act of passing on information outside the organisation.
Internal Whistle blowing: The act of passing on information to someone within the organization but outside the approved channels. Either type is likely to be considered as disloyalty, but the second one is often seen as less serious than the latter. Open Whistle blowing: Individuals openly revealing their identity as they convey the information. A great deal of introspection and reflection are required before WB. Motive should neither be for revenge upon fellow employee, supervisor or company nor in the hope of future gains like book contracts or speaking tours etc. Conditions to be satisfied before Whistle Blowing Richard T. De George suggests the following: 1. The harm that will be done by the product to the public is serious and considerable.
If one does not get any proper response from immediate superiors, then one should exhaust the channels that are available within the organization including the board of directors. There must be strong evidence that making the information public will in fact prevent the threatened serious harm. Instead such employees should be rewarded for fostering ethical behavior in the company. This gives greater freedom and promotes open communication within the organization. Creation of an Ethics Review Committee with freedom to investigate complaints and make independent recommendations to top management. Top priority should be given to promote ethical conduct in the organization by top management.
Engineers should be allowed to discuss in confidence, their moral concerns with the ethics committee of their professional societies. When there are differences on ethical issues between engineers and management, ethics committee members of the professional societies should be allowed to enter into these discussions. Changes and updations in law must be explored by engineers, organizations, professional societies and government organizations on a continuous basis. Employee Rights Employee rights are any rights, moral or legal, that involve the status of being an employee. Some clear examples: falsifying data, avoidance on the safety of a product Discrimination o Discrimination generally means preference on the grounds of sex, race, skin colour, age or religious outlook.
A contract between an Inventor and the Government 3. An exclusive privilege monopoly right granted by the Government to the Inventor 4. Invention may be of an Industrial product or process of manufacture 5. Invention should be new, non-obvious, useful and patentable as per Patents Act 6. The right to the inventor is for limited period of time and valid only within the territorial limits of a country of grant. Give an account of Bhopal Gas Tragedy. On December 3, , Union Carbide's pesticide-manufacturing plant in Bhopal, India leaked 40 tons of the deadly gas, methyl isocyanate into a sleeping, impoverished community - killing 2, within a few days, permanently disabled and injuring , people.
Ten years later, it increased to to deaths and injuries to , The refrigeration system had been drained of coolant weeks before and never refilled -- it cost too much. The tank's pressure gauge was broken and indicated the tank was full when it was really empty. The scrubber was designed for flow rates, temperatures and pressures that were a fraction of what was by this time escaping from the tank. The scrubber was as a result ineffective.
The supply line to the flare tower was broken and hadn't been replaced. The gases were escaping at a point feet above ground; the hoses were designed to shoot water up to feet into the air. In just 2 hours the chemicals escaped to form a deadly cloud over hundreds of thousands of people incl. What are the benefits of Multi National corporations doing business in less developed countries for both the MNCs and the host country? What are the three senses of relative values? Hence it is not possible to formulate rules that are simple and applicably to all situations. Follow the identical practices which were followed in the home country.
Both are unacceptable. A via media should be found based on the context. What are the International Rights as enumerated by Thomas Donaldson? What can MNCs do to promote morally just measures? Or what are Richard T. Write in brief about Technology Transfer and Appropriate Technology? How is environment degraded? By causing injuries to nature i. Usually this damage is caused slowly ii. Sometimes this also happens in sudden strikes 2. Misuse of our resources, fouling our environment 3.
Practicing growths in consumptions and population leading to non-availability of resources 4. Industrial activity denudes land to destroy all plant and animal life , pollutes atmosphere and water, reduces the yield from sea and land 9. What are the questions to be answered by Engineers in their role as experimenters? What is acid rain? What are its effects? On long term it also harms fish eggs and sources of food. What are the other problems caused to the environment? What is Greenhouse effect? What are the effects of Greenhouse?
This may increase the chances of diseases in humans and animals. In Southern Japan, in a large number of people suffered by disfigurement of skin, discolouration, fatigue, numbness, respiratory distress, vomiting and loss of hair. How can we internalise Costs of Environmental Degradation? Give a brief account of Technology Assessment? Sentient — Centered Ethics Sentient animals are those which feel pain and pleasure. This version of Nature-centered ethics is advanced by some utilitarians, notably Peter Singer, who says that right action maximizing good for all should include sentient animals as well as humans.
There is always a dispute as to whether the inherent worth of animals can be equated to human beings or not. Bio — Centric Ethics This regards all living organisms as having inherent worth. This will enable us to take decisions about when life can be sacrificed. Ecocentric Ethics This locates inherent worth in Ecological systems and this approach is different from the other two, as it is not individualistic. This is voiced by Aldo Leopold Human — Centered Environmental Ethics This is an extension of ethical theories to combat threats to human beings presented by the destruction of nature.
Define computer ethics? What shifts are caused in power relationships by Computers? Power relationship caused by Computers: 1. Biased Software: A group of people with known convictions, may tend to produce software which favours their views rather than views from all angles to let the user decide finally. Stock Trading: Automatic, hands-off trading of stocks and currency can be performed, benefiting the trading community but it will harm the intended purposes.
Political Power: By obtaining information about different groups of people regarding their attitudes and values, the computers can be made to help politicians to make speeches, send mails, etc. Military Weapons: Computerised military weapons, even if perfected, will only make opposing countries to develop their striking or responding capability which is not healthy for the world. What problems are encountered in the use of computers with properties? The two major problems encountered in the use of computers with properties are: 1. Embezzlement and 2. Theft of software and information How the problem of embezzlement takes place through computers and why? Explain briefly about Data and Software with respect to property problems.
Patenting on software is limited to detailed coding sequences but not final products. Algorithms and object codes cannot be copyrighted. But source code can be copyrighted. Buying one copy and reproducing dozens of copies. Computers make more information available to more people. This makes protection of computer privacy difficult. Any of the above information can be accessed by, let us say, a prospective employer during a security check. How has law responded to computer abuses? What Professional Issues arise in Computer ethics? Owing to the high degree of job complexity and technical proficiency required, a lot of issues arise in engineering ethics.
Many failure cases have been reported while switching over to a new system. Give one argument each for and against Weapons Development? What should engineers do in taking part in Weapons development? How much is being spent in Defence expenditure and how Arms Trade gets promoted by private manufacturers of arms? Describe the destructive nature and power of weapons and their development? Illustrate the involvement of engineers in Weapons Development with examples. Bob is employed by a firm manufacturing anti-personnel bombs.
Though he does not like to be involved in bomb mfr. If he does not, then someone else will. Of course, his family also needs a steady income. A chemical engineer, Mary, got into napalm mfg when she was promoted. She does not like wars, but she feels that govt. She also knows that if she continues doing well in her job, she will again be promoted to work on a commercial product. Ron is a specialist in missile control and guidance. He knows that he was one of the engineers instrumental in keeping any potential enemy in check through his work. At least, there is enough mutual deterrence for a third world war. Joanne is an electronics engineer working also on avionics for fighter planes that are sold abroad.
She does not want these planes to be sold to hostile countries. Since she does not have any say on who should be their customers, she even alerts occasionally her journalist friends with information about her work which she feels all public should have. What are the Problems of Defense Industry in brief? Large military build-ups, massive projects all lead to unethical business practices and the urgency of completion of the weapons projects does not allow proper controlling and monitoring. The impact of secrecy surrounding any defense activity 4. Overall effect of defense spending on economy Explain the problems of defense industry with examples. He pointed out how large suppliers felt secure in not complying to cost-cutting plans but small contractors were willing.
Technology creep: The arms are not only growing in size, it is also becoming better. The development of a new missile or one that can target more accurately, by one country, can upset or destabilize a diplomatic negotiation. Sometimes this fad for modernization leads to undesirably consequences. The F15 fighter planes were supposed to be fastest and most maneuverable of its kind but most were not available for service due to repairs, defects and lack of spares. Engineers should be beware of such pitfalls. Impact of secrecy: Secrecy poses problems to engineers. Engineers should be aware of the answers to the following questions: Should discoveries of significance to military be informed to govt.?
Can they be shared with other researchers, in other countries? Should they be withheld from the scientific and public community? Will the secrecy in weapons development will also serve to hide corruption or their mistakes in defense establishments? Can secrecy help the promotion of weapons systems without criticism or interference from outsiders? Effect on economy: Every dollar spent on defense produces less jobs than what could be provided for by using the resource on other neglected sectors such as education and road development.
May be a changeover by training defense engineers to use their designs, processes and techniques to bring about better, competitive civilian products is what would be the most appropriate thing to do now. What are the difficulties in Decommissioning Weapons? Even now, shells duds or live which landed about 90 years back during World War I are found by farmers during ploughing. Special bomb disposal squads are being kept busy with hundreds of calls. There are, still more, unexploded and hidden bombs allover the world that fell during World War II 3. Severed limbs and dead bodies are being discovered in lands filled with mines in Cambodia and Vietnam in s and70s. These weapons are easily spread by air but are very difficult and dangerous to detect and remove. About million landmines remain still scattered in the above countries as per estimates by U.
State dept. Landmines present a serious ethical dilemma to leaders who want to be ethical in wars also 8. Design, mfr, deployment and eventually their disposal is a huge experiment. Widespread ignorance on radiation amongst the public Gas warfare experiments, Anthrax carriers, nuclear weapons all cause both known and unknown problems Engineers dealing with dangerous material should consider both the intended use and also the unintended consequences and also their disposal.
Richard L. He found, while trying to understand the effect of earthquakes on nuclear plants, that 1. His basic study of physics is more useful in studying this area compared to the more advanced studies in engg. His understanding of risk analysis was based not only on probability theory but also on value judgement about safety. But more interesting was that understanding people was more important than anything else. Person oriented skills are as important to engineers as technical skills.
Why managements prefer to make engineers as managers than non-engineers? But still, many of them move to managerial positions early in their career for which they received no training. Hence the moral roles of managers and engineers are complementary and not opposed. Explain how Ethical Climate is promoted in organizations through examples. There are highly ethical organizations, examples of some of which are given below: 1. Marilyn Hamilton, founded Quickie Designs in , who was a teacher and athlete who was paralyzed in hang-gliding accident. A highly mobile and versatile wheel chair was designed weighing 26 pounds, half the weight of chairs that were currently produced.
It had a policy of customer sponsored sports events for young people in wheelchairs. It is relatively small strong and exceptionally committed. Martin Mariette Corpn began an ethics program in emphasizing basic value like honesty and fairness and responsibility for environment and high product quality. They drafted a code of conduct, conducted and ethics workshop for managers and created effective procedures for employees to express their ethical concerns. Texas Instruments TI is an example of an ethical large corporation emphasizing on trust, respect for other persons, etc. He surveyed to know the ethical concerns of employees and their awareness.
He conducted workshops on ethics, wrote brochures and was directly to all employees through a confidential phone line. Even though they made it clear that unprofessional conduct would not be tolerated, the focus was on supporting ethical conduct than punishing wrong doers. A large defense contractor started an ethics program that was not successful. The primary difficulty was the gap between the intentions of top management and the unchanged behaviour of the Senior managers.
What steps can be taken to improve the ethical climate by managers? Ethical values and their full complexity are widely acknowledged and appreciated by managers and engineers. Neither profits nor promoting the interests of the organization is neglected but the moral limits on profit-seeking go beyond simply obeying the law and avoiding fraud. The sincere use of ethical language is recognized as a legitimate part of corporate dialogue.
This is done either by formulating corporate code of ethics or by including ethical responsibilities in job descriptions at all levels. Top management must set a moral tone, in words, in policies and by personal example. Everyone should be confident that management is serious about ethics. There must be procedures for conflict resolution. Managers should be trained to resolve conflicts and on the other hand, a person should be exclusively made to have confidential discussions about moral concerns.
What are the most common conflicts? Can conflicts be managed by force or authority? How are different conflicts resolved? This is generally perceived as self- defeating. Differing views provide opportunity for improved creativity. What are the 4 ways to resolve conflicts among persons suggested by Harvard Negotiation Project? Even though both the people and the problem are important, the personal aspect of the conflict should be separated from the problem to deal with it better. On personality clashes, the focus should be on behaviour and not on people. Positions are stated views but these may not really express their best interests. Create a wide range of options especially in technical and ethical issues and facilitate discussions.
Beyond the goals of efficiency, quality and customer satisfaction, it is important to develop a sense of fair process in how the goals are met. What is the nature of work for Engineers as Consulting Engineers? What are the major areas of work for engineer consultants? Advertising 2. Competitive bidding 3. Contingency fees 4. Safety and client needs The state felt that work should be won through reputation as engineer and not through advertisement.
Now the focus has been shifted to restrain deceptive advertising which is done through: 1. Outright lies 2. Exaggeration 4. Making false suggestions or implications 5. Obfuscation confusion or not being clear created by ambiguity, vagueness 6. Manipulation of the unconscious When is advertising considered to be deceptive? Example 1: A consulting firm played actually a very minor role in a well-known project Situation 1: Its brochure claims that it played a major role Situation 2: It makes no claim but only shows the picture of the project Situation 3: It shows the picture along with a footnote in fine print the true details about its role in the project Situation 4: If the same statement is printed in larger type and not as footnote.
Example 2: An ad shows an electronics device to convey that the item is routinely produced and available for sale. But actually the ad shows only the prototype or mock-up and the item is just being developed. What are the norms to be followed by ethical consultants in advertising? Why was Competitive Bidding prohibited earlier and then why was it approved by courts? When consulting engineers reject competitive bidding, what can be the basis of their selection? Consulting engineers, in the absence of competitive bidding can be selected only based on their reputation and proven qualification.
But younger, competent engineers may be disadvantaged by this method. What is your understanding of Contingency Fees? Contingency fee is dependent on some specific conditions beyond normal, satisfactory performance in work. In many cases, consultants tend to be biased and in order to gain the fee, they may specify inferior design or process to cut costs. Hence, this again calls for contextual reasoning based on ethical theories, which provide a framework for assessing morally relevant issues of the problem. Who is the major loser in any dispute? What are the steps to be taken resolve disputes? Define how risks are to be apportioned and payment of fees to be made 2.
Make contractual provisions for dispute solving vehicles to avoid legal battles in lines of mediation — arbitration 3. National Joint Board for settlement of Jurisdictional Disputes will be called to provide a leaking board and appeals board. What is the work done by Engineers as Experts? Engineers, in their position as experts, explain the happenings of the past in terms of Causes of accidents, malfunctions of equipment and other technological events. They also help in events of the future like, public planning, potential of patents and policy making in technology How should Expert Engineers function? Types Of Cases I.
Airplane crash II. Defective products III. Personal injury IV. Property damage V. Traffic accident Stakes I. Legal liabilities II. Economic interests III. Reputations of corpns. What are the aims of a legal system? Aims Of A Legal System is To administer a complex system of legal rights that define legal justice achieved through adversarial relationships, with rules about admissible forms of evidence and permissible forms of testimony What is the role of an expert in a court system consistent with Professional standards codes of ethics?
What is the difference between Eye witness and Expert witness? What are the types of abuses of Engineers as Expert witnesses? What is needed of the Expert Engineers? Empire of Rubber. From Parchment to Dust. The Case for Constitutional Skepticism. Inner Light in a Time of Darkness. Blog Articles see all. Journeys in a Racial State. Authors see all. Paul Butler. Elie Mystal. Joseph E. Michelle Alexander. Immigration Matters at McNally Jackson. Join us for a conversation on racial capitalism, ecological injustice, and medical racism Donate to The New Press. Stay connected! Sign up to receive newsletters and event invitations.
Sign me up for: Newsletter. Academic offers. Bookseller updates. Librarian updates. This confirms that you are a human visitor and prevents spam. It is not case-sensitive. Follow us:.How is environment degraded? An Moral Values In The Outsiders discovered faulty construction equipment and applied a violation tag, preventing its use. Stay connected! On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to Moral Values In The Outsiders with the city fathers. But they peter brook empty space acted in the Moral Values In The Outsiders that Moral Values In The Outsiders defeated is Moral Values In The Outsiders than evil triumphant. Librarian updates.