🔥🔥🔥 Stimulus Response Model

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Stimulus Response Model



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19 Stimulus Response Model by Tracy McGee

This has led PI to become a staple in the hiring and managing infrastructure of organizations worldwide. Below are some tools that are being used to complement these two model to ensure effective and accurate use. The Predictive Index Behavioral Assessment is a free choice, stimulus response survey used to capture the true personality of the user. In regards to the 9-box model, the results of the PI assessment can be analyzed and interpreted to better understand the potential of each individual with respect to the job, resulting in a more accurate positioning on the matrix.

With that being said, the cognitive agility of a candidate is an important factor in determining their potential. Once you are able to accurately determine where an employee fits into the 9 box matrix, strategies must be utilized to help guide your employee towards overall improvement, and heightened leadership responsibilities. The leadership competency model is a useful tool to recognize different areas in which employees can work through to attempt to raise their leadership capabilities. Striving to create stronger leadership should be a goal of any group, and the Leadership Transition Program is formulated to help with just that. The 4 day workshop aims to provide strategies and ideas to help in the transition of employees and current leaders towards expanded leadership roles, which will aid in the efficiency of both the individual, and the group.

This provides a concrete picture that can be drawn upon to determine why employees are thriving or lagging in their current roles, and which may be best suited for promotional opportunities. In short, the 9-box model is an effective tool in the succession planning process, however analytics software can help tremendously to obtain the most value from the matrix. Using the leadership competency model, you can easily identify areas that the organization or group can rely on to continually further their leadership capabilities. With the Leadership Transition Program and PI organizational charts, establishing development strategies and an effective succession plan becomes a simple and definitive process that will lead to a future of formidable leadership. Click here to try PI and learn more about what it can do for you.

Addressing the Problem of Potential Now it is easy to recognize the past performance of individual employees, but identifying their potential is a complicated task. PI Behavioral Assessment The Predictive Index Behavioral Assessment is a free choice, stimulus response survey used to capture the true personality of the user. LTP Leadership Transition Program Once you are able to accurately determine where an employee fits into the 9 box matrix, strategies must be utilized to help guide your employee towards overall improvement, and heightened leadership responsibilities. About the Author: Thomas MacIntosh. Related Posts. September 24th, August 20th, June 11th, May 7th, April 9th, April 1st, November 20th, The theory may also be known as Behaviorism, or Operant Conditioning, which is still commonly taught in psychology today.

Behaviorism evolved out of frustration with the introspective techniques of humanism and psychoanalysis, as some researchers were dissatisfied with the lack of directly observable phenomena that could be measured and experimented with. In their opinion, it would make the discipline of Psychology more "scientific" and on par with the core sciences. These researchers turned to exploring only the behaviors that could be observed and measured, and away from the mysterious workings of the mind Funder, Psychology has frequently been associated with the human mind and the evolution of cognitive awareness, causing Skinner to move in a different direction. By applying his thoughts on adjusting motivation through various stimuli, industries such as business, government, education, prisons, and mental institutions can gain a broader understanding of human behavior.

For him, it was outward behavior and its environment that mattered. His most important contribution to psychological science was the concept of reinforcement, formalized in his principles of operant conditioning. Reinforcement theory has been used in many areas of study to include animal training, raising children, and motivating employees in the workplace. Reinforcement theories focus on observable behavior rather than needs theories that focus on personal states.

Reinforcement theory is a form of operant conditioning and focuses on the environmental factors that contribute to shaping behavior. Simply put, reinforcement theory claims that stimuli are used to shape behaviors. There are four primary approaches to reinforcement theory: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment , which will be covered in a later paragraph.

By analyzing the various components of the Law of Effect and the primary approaches, we can achieve desired results, otherwise known as consequences, through its application within the workplace. Economists and psychologists commonly assume that behavior is shaped by its consequences, known as the Law of Effect. Psychologists understand that animals try different behaviors, assess the effects, and respond by doing more of the things that result in positive results versus negative. This states that people engage in behaviors that have pleasant outcomes and avoid behaviors that result in unpleasant outcomes.

Thorndike, From this view, the important consequence of a behavior is the information it provides about behavioral outcomes. The effect of the information is to alter policy Gallistel, Through trial and error, the cat was able to learn the contingency between its behavior and the reward. Thorndike also noticed that with more training, the cats managed to gain access to food in increasingly less time. The figure below exhibits the puzzle box, in which a graph "demonstrates the general decreasing trend of the cat's response times with each successive trial". As an example, if the cat would press a bar or pull on a string, a door would open allowing the cat to escape. Once the cat was outside of the box, it would find some food in close proximity, thereby reinforcing the response Thorndike, Thorndike continually repeated this activity over and over again to formulate his theory and solidify his results.

He also discovered that the speed at which the cats escaped from the box increased with each successful attempt, proving that, not only did the learned behavior become reinforced, but the desire for reward motivated the performance. Failure increases dissatisfaction, and the absence of the relation among the experiences weakens them. Herrnstein, a student of B. Skinner, published a paper in which he described the Quantitative Law of Effect. For clarification, an asymptote is a line that a function approaches ever so closely, but never touches. The value of constant k depends on the amount of effort that the behavior requires, and the value of r e depends on other sources of reinforcement in the environment Herrnstein, According to the law, the rate of a particular behavior depends both on its own reinforcement rate and on the reinforcement rate of other behaviors.

From this statement, it follows that operants i. Reinforcement theory provides two methods of increasing desirable behaviors. One is positive reinforcement and the other is negative reinforcement. In other words:. Negative Reinforcement : Remove - what individuals do not like when they have performed the desired behavior Griggs, In the case of negative reinforcement, it is important to remember that negative does not mean "bad", just the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Positive and negative have similar connotations in the application of punishment. Positive reinforcement uses the reward system.

The reward system is a collection of brain structures which attempt to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. Some examples of rewards in the workplace are monetary bonuses, promotions, praise, paid holiday leave, and attention. In educational settings the rewards can include food, verbal praise, or a preferred item such as a toy or a break on a swing. Giving rewards may not result in the desired effect or behavior, but the reward must stimulate the person to produce the desired behavior to be positive reinforcement. This means that the reinforcement should be highly motivating to the individual.

For example, in the workplace a paycheck or a bonus may be a highly motivating factor for many people, but not necessarily all. Skinner introduced people to positive reinforcement by conducting experiments on animals, most notably his rat experiment. Skinner designed a box with a lever inside that released food when pressed. He placed a hungry rat into the box to see if the rat could figure out how to get to the food. When the rat was first placed into the box, it fumbled around until it inadvertently hit the lever and the food was produced. Through several trials, the rat learned to go straight for the lever to produce the food when it was hungry.

Therefore, B. Skinner tested positive reinforcement, and concluded it does produce desired behaviors McLeod, The following clip from CBS's "The Big Bang Theory" television show displays and explains the aspects of positive reinforcement, and a quick example of positive punishment. Negative reinforcement is a "psychological reinforcement by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus when a desired response occurs" Negative Reinforcement, n. Negative reinforcement uses the reward system. A person is rewarded for desired behavior by having something unpleasant removed. This removal is the reward. For example, in the workplace a person may find it undesirable to be monitored closely.

If a person is doing their job to the highest standard, they may not be monitored as closely anymore. This removal of the monitoring is the reward for consistently doing their job well. Another example of negative reinforcement could be a new employee at a fast food chain having to clean the public bathrooms as part of their job as a new hire. By performing this and other tasks well, eventually this unpleasant task could be removed as a way to keep this person interested and motivated to do well as they advance in job title and salary. Skinner used the rat to demonstrate positive reinforcement, but he also utilized the same test to prove negative reinforcement. Skinner placed an electric current inside the box which was an unpleasant stimulus for the rat.

The rat inadvertently hit the lever and learned that this turned the electric current off. Through several trials, the rat learned that if it went straight to the lever, it would turn off the current McLeod, Avoidance learning acts similarly to negative reinforcement, except "the desired behavior serves to prevent the onset of a noxious stimulus, or in a variant, terminates such a stimulus that already exists" Miner, Criticism from a supervisor could serve as a noxious stimulus.

While avoidance learning can serve to be effective in some cases, positive reinforcement is often preferred Miner, Avoidance learning can be seen in the workplace when an employee exhibits the desired behavior in an effort to avoid the consequence, such as being criticized by one's supervisor. When looking at avoidance learning, one can easily see that the main goal is to understand what the unpleasant stimulus is and then it can be avoided. When an employee knows they will be terminated for having too many unexcused absences, they will make sure to avoid being absent without an excuse. In this scenario, when an employee brings in an excuse slip for an absence, the negative consequence is also avoided PSU WC, L.

Reinforcement can also be a way to "reward" and reproduce undesirable behaviors. In looking at these two types of reinforcement in another way, "these terms refer to psychological processes that cause certain behaviors to be repeated" and is not just a system of rewards Addiction Intervention, Addiction usually occurs over a long period of time and after extensive abuse of their bodies. How do they get to be this way? They have reinforced their behaviors. Positive reinforcement of substance abuse : "taking a drug or consuming alcohol brings a feeling of pleasure or euphoria, however brief" Addiction Intervention Negative reinforcement of substance abuse : The substance causes unwanted feelings to go away.

It is a type of avoidance. Positive reinforcement in substance abuse treatment : "Allow the patient to encounter the stressor, or literally face their fears, and then not permit them to resort to their escape strategy — but instead find new ways to cope" Addiction Intervention Negative reinforcement in substance abuse treatment : The removal of a negative stimulus such as chastisement from family members would constitute as negative reinforcement. This may mean counseling family members on how to be a positive influence on their loved ones, instead of berating them and causing more stress" Addiction Intervention Positive and Negative reinforcement can play a role in all behavior, not just in working environment behavior. It can replicate unwanted behavior as well as be a key in treatment of those behaviors.

Reinforcement theory provides two methods of eliminating undesirable behaviors. One is negative punishment and the other is positive punishment. Positive punishment is what we think of when we think of a "punishment". Negative Punishment: Remove - what individuals like when they have performed the undesired behavior Griggs, The type of punishment most people are familiar with is positive punishment. Positive punishment is easier for people to identify because it is common in society. Hockenbury, Using the example of a chatty co-worker, the employee could be orally reprimanded for spending too much time conversing with co-workers.

It is important to realize that even though consequences such as suspension, demotions, etc. Positive punishment is effective in eliminating undesired behaviors but it does have limitations. Positive punishment has been found to be more effective when the stimulus is added immediately following the undesired behavior as opposed to applying delayed stimulus. The greatest drawback is that positive punishment fails to teach desirable behaviors. Punishment is seen as more acceptable than positive reinforcement because "people believe they are free to choose to behave in responsible ways to avoid punishment" Maag, Our societal values of independence, and a tendency to view the world in terms of being punished for bad or immoral behavior tend to predispose us to treat inappropriate behaviors with punishment, rather than focusing on the value of positive reinforcement for doing the right thing.

Extinction , on the other hand, involves withholding the pleasing stimulus that is maintaining the unwanted behavior each time the behavior occurs. This happens until the behavior gradually decreases to zero or the desired level M. Sundel, Using the above example of the disruptive employee, his supervisor instructs his co-workers to ignore his non work-related comments and not respond to them. The response from his co-workers is the pleasing stimulus maintaining his behavior. Without it, the employee no longer chats about non work-related business and becomes more productive as a result. It is important to remember that extinction is not permanent and that the behavior may return after the extinction process is complete, a process called spontaneous recovery Coon, Skinner found that non-reinforcement of behavior to achieve extinction is much less effective than reinforcement of behavior that is continuous.

This is due to the fact that any intermittent reinforcement of the unwanted behavior can lead to recurrence. We might be able to resist a child's nagging most of the time, but if we yield every once in a while, the child will persist with it" Crain, Often times, behavior not modified is behavior accepted. Extinction may decrease the frequency of desirable behavior as well. For example, an employee regularly stays late at work to assist the next shift in catching up after a very busy day. No praise or thanks is ever given to the employee by her co-workers or supervisor, so eventually she leaves work on time and stops assisting the next shift. Ignoring her good behavior caused its extinction Tosi et al. Note that because good behavior may also be eliminated, "managers should be sensitive to the wide array of possibilities of extinction in the workplace" p.

Negative punishment involves removing a pleasing stimulus other than the one maintaining the behavior in order to decrease the frequency of the behavior. Normally, the behavior decreases immediately M. An example of negative punishment might be an office worker who disrupts his co-workers by constantly chatting about non work-related subjects. His co-workers usually respond to him and are polite, which is the pleasing stimulus maintaining his disruptive behavior. His supervisor informs him that, if he remains disruptive, he will not receive his yearly pay raise. Another form of negative punishment could be the removal of his desk from his co-workers and placement in a more isolated area.

The removal of the pay raise and the loss of the prime location in the office space are the negative punishment in his example because they are pleasing stimuli, but not the one directly maintaining his behavior M. According to D. Hockenbury and S. Hockenbury , negative punishment may also be referred to as punishment by removal. Be consistent: Punishment must be doled out consistently between employees and also within individuals. If an employee is punished for lateness, he or she must be punished for each late occurrence thereafter. If punishments are not consistent, rules will lose impact, there may be a decline in morale, and employees may question the competence of the dispenser of the punishment. It is reasonable, however, to consider any mitigating factors in each punishment situation, such as past history and performance.

Punishment may be adjusted in those situations, provided the rationale is made abundantly clear to all concerned Robbins et al. Suggest alternative behaviors: It is important to clearly explain the reasons for the punishment and offer the employee alternative good behaviors. Disciplining an employee for an undesirable behavior only makes clear to him or her, what not to do. Suggesting alternatives will educate the employee on what is the preferred behavior and make it more likely that the behavior will be changed to one that is more desirable Robbins et al.

Utilize the five to one rule: According to Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer and Vohs , because bad interactions are more powerful emotionally than good interactions, it is important to balance the good and bad by more frequently using positive reinforcement rather than punishment. A good ratio is five enjoyable interactions to one disagreeable interaction Baumeister et al. Punish and Reward. Desirable behaviors should be rewarded and undesirable behaviors should be punished Redmond, When punishing, it is imperative to use caution in following the rules to apply punishment effectively.

The following are five dangers of punishment Funder, Punishment stirs emotion : The punisher may actually derive a great deal of excitement and satisfaction, thereby fueling further aggressive behaviors. In many instances, punishers can become completely blind without realizing the severity of their error in losing self-control, thereby turning the punishment into abuse. Conversely, high levels of fear, hate, desire to escape and self-contempt can arise in the punished, all causing humiliation, discomfort and pain. Many times because of this, the punished fails to learn any lesson at all from the punishment because of their need to escape and the pain involved with the specific punishing behavior.

Punishing consistently is challenging : Applying punishments effectively can be a very difficult task because the mood of the punisher changes with every circumstance, thereby leaving the possibility for inconsistency with punishments. Inconsistency is one of the main reasons why punishment can prove to be very ineffective. The same type of punishments must be adhered to on all counts. To punish one person one way and another differently will produce unproductive results, particularly in work settings. Judging the level of severity is a difficult task: Perceptions of a person being punished can be vastly different than the person actually doing the punishing. For example, being reprimanded by your boss can be a very humiliating experience beyond what they could possibly know.

Issues such as psychological distress and the breaking down of confidence levels can create ill feelings, misunderstandings and, even worse, a desire for revenge. Punishment can be an education in power : Specifically with children, but also in work settings, punishments can cause less powerful people to want to strive to become "powerful" by observing the example they are shown in receiving punishments. In a work environment, an angered employee may attempt a mutiny on their boss to drive them out of their position. Punishment can produce a need for concealment: Particularly in an office setting where the boss utilizes punishment frequently, employees tends to withdraw, keep silent and avoid effective communication between each other due to the need of avoiding the conflict of punishment.

This causes the boss to lose sight of the dynamics of his employees and office and alienates employee from feeling safe to work and express themselves to the best of their ability. Funder notes that rewards can have the opposite effect. A good worker will always seek to impress the boss by presenting at every opportunity their positive actions, for which the boss reciprocates. Through this communication he finds himself more in tune with the inner workings of his office. This behavior is to be noted in children as well. A child who expects reward will consistently attempt to impress their parents with their good behaviors, whereas a child who is constantly under attack and living in fear of punishment will attempt to sever communication as much as possible with the punisher.

In the words of Funder, "punishment works great if you apply correctly -- but to apply it correctly, it helps to be a genius and a saint" Funder, , p. A schedule of reinforcement determines when and how often reinforcement of a behavior is given. Schedules of reinforcement play an important role in the learning process of operant conditioning since the speed and strength of the response can be significantly impacted by when and how often a behavior is reinforced Van Wagner, b.

Two types of reinforcement schedules are: continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement. Continuous reinforcement is when a desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it is displayed. C ontinuous reinforcement will not generate enduring changes in behavior, once the rewards are withdrawn, the desired behavior will become extinct. A good example of continuous behavior is the process of using a vending machine.

For example, a soda machine will give a soda every time you feed it money. Every so often you may not receive the soda and you are likely to try only a few more times. The likelihood that you will continuously keep adding money when not receiving any reward is extremely low so this behavior is often stopped very quickly Durell, Intermittent reinforcement is when a desired behavior is reinforced only occasionally when it is displayed. In this type of reinforcement schedule behaviors are obtained more gradually, however the behaviors are more enduring defying extinction.

Ratio reinforcement is the reinforcement of a desired behavior after a number of occurrences, while interval reinforcement is the reinforcement of a desired behavior after a period of time. Consequently, four types of intermittent reinforcement schedules exist: fixed interval schedules, variable interval schedules, fixed ratio schedules and variable ratio schedules. Fixed Interval Schedules: A reinforcement of appropriate behavior that is delivered after a specified interval of time has elapsed Smith, Heffner offers an appropriate example of an employee performance review for a raise every year and not in between Heffner, Only directly before the interval time has elapsed is the desired behavior displayed so as to look good when the performance review comes around Heffner, The fixed interval schedule is a form of continuous schedule and works well for punishment or learning a new behavior Heffner, Variable Interval Schedules: This is a reinforcement of appropriate behavior that is delivered after an average interval of time has elapsed Smith, This is best expressed in the example of a corporate random drug testing policy.

The power of variable reinforcement lies in the fact that individuals do not know exactly when it is coming. The policy may dictate that a random drug screening will be conducted every 3 months or so, however because it is random the screening may happen sooner at 2 months or later at 4 months, with the average interval time equaling around 3 months. As shown in the figure above the variable interval schedule tends to consistently produce more appropriate behaviors Heffner, This schedule of reinforcement is best used when fading out a fixed interval schedule or reinforcing already established behaviors Smith, Because the fixed ratio schedule is methodical, it produces a high, steady rate of response.

The fixed ratio schedule is also a form of continuous schedule and works well for punishment or learning a new behavior Heffner, Variable Ratio Schedules: A reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs after a variable number of actions have been performed ex: Employees who contribute to a lottery pot, a various number of tickets will win a various amount of money, which is put back into the pot for the next week. The number of behaviors required to obtain the reward changes. The variable rate schedules tend to be more effective than fixed ratio schedules, because they generate a higher rate of response and resist extinction Redmond, This educational and amusing video demonstrates examples of positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Shaping with successive approximations is used to elicit a behavior that has never been displayed, or rarely occurs, by building the desired behavior progressively and rewarding each improvement on the behavior until the desired behavior is reached.

According to M. Sundel and S. Sundel , the following steps must be taken to shape a behavior:. An example of shaping is teaching a child sign language. The desired response would be for the child to learn how to sign the word "candy. It would not make sense to use bubbles as a reinforcer, because they are not requesting bubbles, they are requesting candy. The sign for candy is pointing one's left index finger, touching their index finger to the left cheek, and twisting it.

The initial response in this example could be to just point the left finger. Every time this is done the child would be reinforced. Once this is done consistently, the intermediate response could be used. The intermediate response could be to point their finger and touch their cheek. Every time this is done it would be reinforced. Just pointing their finger would no longer be an acceptable response, and would no longer be reinforced.

Once the intermediate response is consistent, the desired response would be reinforced. The desired response in this case would be the accurate sign of candy. This is an example of how shaping can be used. Another example involves Skinner and his students at Harvard University. The story is legendary albeit anecdotal: Skinner's students decided to try out the shaping technique on Skinner himself by making him give his lectures from the door, with one foot in the hallway instead of from the podium.

When Skinner was lecturing from the podium, they pretended to be disinterested by looking bored and shuffling their feet. As soon as the instructor took one step away from the podium, they pretended to pay attention and showed keen interest in the lecture. When Skinner became conditioned to lecturing one step away from the podium, students raised the criterion for their attention to two steps away from the podium. Eventually, by raising the criteria, each time further and further away from the podium, they were able to make Skinner give his lectures from the door, with one foot in the hallway.

He would occasionally run to the podium to look at his notes and then return to the door to continue his lecture. When one of his colleagues asked him why he was lecturing from the door, Skinner replied: "Don't you know, the light is much better in the doorway. Research on Reinforcement Theory, like any other research, must be conducted using rigorous methods Redmond, According to Stangor , the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct research is called the scientific method.

The scientific method increases objectivity by placing the data under the scrutiny of fellow scientists and informs them of the methods used to collect the data. One interesting contemporary example of Reinforcement Theory, in real life action, comes from an article by Richard Burger entitled, "The Marvelous Benefits of Positive and Negative Reinforcement". The example took place in a college psychology class where most of the students had decided to test the principles of reinforcement on their own professor. The students had noticed that the professor had the annoying and distracting habit of pacing back and forth in the front of the classroom during his lectures.

Using the principles of Reinforcement Theory, they set out to end this habit. To do this, the students who were in on the experiment sat in the first two or three rows of the classroom as the lecture began. When the professor stood in the center of the classroom, the students in the experiment would act as though they were immensely involved in the lecture, eyes locked in.

When the professor would wander off center, they acted disinterested and uninvolved. A quarter of the way through the semester the professor's habit was gone, and he lectured only in the center of the classroom. Reinforcement Theory was clearly in action in this example. As the professor wandered to the sides of the room, he was punished by students who became disinterested in his lecture. This was negative punishment. As he made his way back to the center of the room, where the students wanted him to stay, he was rewarded by the students becoming involved and interested, or positive reinforcement.

In a study by Del Chiaro , the use of verbal positive reinforcement as a means of improving employee job satisfaction was examined. Five supervisors were trained in the use of verbal positive reinforcement. The supervisor's employees then completed job satisfaction surveys following job training during a baseline, intervention, and post-test phase Del Chiaro, Analysis of the results of the employee surveys revealed no clear patterns, but when the means of all the supervisors were added, there was a small increase in job satisfaction ratings. Since the validity data the supervisors submitted was incomplete, the small increase could not be solely attributed to the verbal positive reinforcement Del Chiaro, Del Chiaro concludes that based on the data, "training supervisors in the use of positive verbal reinforcement has no negative effect on employee job satisfaction" p.

According to this study, verbal positive reinforcement may increase job satisfaction slightly, but it is more likely that it does not decrease job satisfaction. Under this schedule, cocaine dose-dependently increased responding relative to placebo, indicating that cocaine functioned as a positive reinforcer Stoops, The groups created consisted of employees that either performed complex tasks, or performed relatively simple tasks.

Each group was then broken into subgroups for a total of 4 groups. The complex group was reinforced with money and paid leave, or outcome and process feedback. The simple group was reinforced with an informal dress code, or flexible working hours. There were 36 employees that made up this group and their daily jobs were to develop new software, train employees on the new software, accounting, and auditing. One subgroup 18 employees received discounts on products sold by the company and were offered paid leave for an additional half day every month. The monetary reinforcer worked well and employee purchases at the retail store almost doubled after the reinforcers were used.

The second subgroup 18 employees of group G1 received outcome and process feedback. Outcome feedback communicated to the employee what their performance level was against the set standard Raj et al. Process feedback conveyed to each employee how the performance was executed, and, more importantly, as to what should be done in future to improve their performance Raj et al. This group of employees 40 in number performed simple task. All of the 40 employees were asked to list what would motivate them and make them feel comfortable in their work spot, which in turn would lead to an increase in their performance Raj et al.

The biggest reinforcer chose was informal dress code. Out of 40 employees, 23 of them selected this reinforcer. Plus, the formal dress code made them very uncomfortable because of the weather in India. The remaining 17 employees that made up G2 viewed working hours that were flexible would be the best reinforcer. They suggested that management allow them to leave early in lean seasons as soon as the task assigned to them for that day was completed Raj et al.

When the season was at its peak the same workers would work longer hours to ensure all tasks were completed before leaving. The aggregate behavior of G11 came down from Money and social recognition are better reinforcers than feedback for less complex tasks according to previous literature. This experiment shows that providing suggestions and information for future improvement has a more enduring benefit than does the use of monetary discounts combined with increased paid leave Raj et al. Reinforcement was successful, but management needs to come up with new reinforcements to maintain a high level of performance among employees.

Besides an increase in job performance there was an increase in satisfaction for G2. Their attitudes were better than before, their willingness to do the jobs assigned to them was higher, and their spirits were high Raj et al. While Reinforcement Theory is widely accepted and deployed universally and the positive effects are commonly known, there are aspects to consider when adopting practices based on this theory.

The basis for this theory is extrinsic motivation which critics say can offend those whose behavior is the subject. Further evidence reveals that if the target of the behavior modification is aware of the attempt, certain personality types will do everything in their power to skew the results Gergen, The culture needs to be examined to determine if the reward holds value. What held value twenty years ago, may not hold value today. Provides clues to motivation. Unlike Needs Theory of motivation which focused on internal needs, Reinforcement Theory is based on external conditions.

Within the workplace, organizational management theorists look to the environment to explain and control people's behavior. Because of this, it may be easier to motivate a group of workers through external factors such as pay raise, promotion, etc Operant Conditioning,

Stimulus Response Model famous old Monty Stimulus Response Model 'closed door' probability problem is Stimulus Response Model fascinating example of faulty human Stimulus Response Model thinking. However, all follow the basic sequence which Reward Store Employees Case Study Cognition- Affect- Behaviour. E Tulving, W Donaldson, pp. Marketing Marketing management. Project Management Schoenberg Vs Satie Management.