✎✎✎ How Did William Morris Influence Imperialism

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How Did William Morris Influence Imperialism

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William Morris (In Our Time)

Bennett, James Gordon , son of preceding, conductor of the Herald ; sent Stanley out to Africa, and supplied the funds. Bennett, Sir Sterndale , an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield, whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann; became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of Music Bennett, Wm. Bentham, George , botanist, born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works, besides a writer on botany Bentinck, Lord George , statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of the Reform Bill of ; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield Bentinck, Lord William Henry Cavendish , Indian statesman, governor of Madras in , but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms.

Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in , became member for Glasgow in , and died before he made any mark on home politics Bentivoglio , an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic, and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce. Benzene , a substance compounded of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute for turpentine and for dissolving grease. Benzoin , a fragrant concrete resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as a cosmetic, and burned as incense.

Beowulf , a very old Anglo-Saxon romance consisting of short alliterative lines, and the oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil. Berber 8 , a town in Nubia, on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.

Berbers 3, , a race aboriginal to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though different from the Arab race, are of the same religion. Berbice , the eastern division of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber. Berchta , a German Hulda, but of severer type. See Bertha. Bercy , a commune on the right bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since ; is the great mart for wines and brandies.

After this he ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer Berenger I. The name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses. Beresford, William Carr, Viscount , an English general, natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war, for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington administration, and master-general of the ordnance Bergen 52 , the old capital of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream, and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea, and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable, is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain, leather, etc.

Bergen-op-Zoom 11 , a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted and frequently contested for by reason of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies. Bergerac 11 , a manufacturing town in France, 60 m. Berghem , a celebrated landscape-painter of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem Berkeley, George , bishop of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching, his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood, his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine that the universe, with every particular in it, as man sees it and knows it , is not the creation of matter but the creation of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and dwells in both it and him; for as Dr.

Berkshire , a midland county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the E. Bagshot Heath. It is famous for its breed of pigs. The royal and imperial palaces, the great library, the university, national gallery and museums, and the arsenal are all near the centre of the city. There are schools of science, art, agriculture, and mining; technical and military academies; a cathedral and some old churches; zoological and botanical gardens.

Its position between the Baltic and North Seas, the Spree, the numerous canals and railways which converge on it, render it a most important commercial centre; its staple trade is in grain, cattle, spirits, and wool. Manufactures are extensive and very varied; the chief are woollens, machinery, bronze ware, drapery goods, and beer. Berlin Decree , a decree of Napoleon of Nov. Berlioz, Hector , a celebrated musical composer and critic, born near Grenoble, in the dep.

They produce a fine arrowroot, and export onions. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval station, and are provided with docks and fortifications. Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules , a marshal of France, born at Pau; rose from the ranks; distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution and the Empire, though between him and Napoleon there was constant distrust; adopted by Charles XIII. Bernard, Claude , a distinguished French physiologist, born at St. Julien; he studied at Paris; was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France; discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats, that of the liver the transformation into sugar of certain elements in the blood, and that there are nervous centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal centre Bernard, St.

Bernard of Menthon , an ecclesiastic, founder of the monasteries of the Great and the Little St. Bernard, in the passage of the Alps Bernardine, St. Bernauer, Agnes , wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria, whom his father, displeased at the marriage, had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube. Berne 47 , a fine Swiss town on the Aar, which almost surrounds it, in a populous canton of the same name; since the capital of the Swiss Confederation; commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps; a busy trading and manufacturing city.

Berners, Juliana , writer on hunting and hawking; lived in the 14th century; said to have been prioress of a nunnery. Peter's; he died wealthy Petersburg and then at Basel; discovered the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational fractions, as well as the line of swiftest descent Bernstorff, Count , a celebrated statesman, diplomatist, and philanthropist of Denmark; called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great; founded an Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen, and obtained the emancipation of the serfs Bernstorff, Count , a nephew of the preceding; also statesman and diplomatist Bernstorff, Pierre , Danish minister, son of the preceding, a guardian of civil and political liberty Richter, in Germany.

Berri , an ancient province of France, forms dep. Berri, Duc de , second son of Charles X. Berri, Duchesse de , dowager of preceding, distinguished herself by her futile efforts to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe Bertha , goddess in the S. German mythology, of the spinning-wheel principally, and of the household as dependent on it, in behalf of which and its economical management she is often harsh to idle spinners; at her festival thrift is the rule.

Bertha, St. Long Foot , wife of Pepin the Short, and mother of Charlemagne, so called from her club foot. Berthelier , a Swiss patriot, an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to lord it over Geneva. Berthier, Alexandre , prince of Wagram and marshal of France, born at Versailles; served with Lafayette in the American war, and rose to distinction in the Revolution; became head of Napoleon's staff, and his companion in all his expeditions; swore fealty to the Bourbons at the restoration of ; on Napoleon's return retired with his family to Bamberg; threw himself from a window, maddened at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier Berthoud , a celebrated clockmaker, native of Switzerland; settled in Paris; invented the marine chronometer to determine the longitude at sea Bertin, Pierre , introduced stenography into France, invented by Taylor in England Bertin, Rose , milliner to Marie Antoinette, famed for her devotion to her.

Bertinazzi , a celebrated actor, born at Turin, long a favourite in Paris Helena; conducted his remains back to France in Berton, Pierre , French composer of operas Henri, his son, composed operas; wrote a treatise on harmony Berwick, North , a place on the S. Berwick-on-Tweed 13 , a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed, at its mouth, reckoned since in Northumberland, though at one time treated as a separate county; of interest from its connection with the Border wars, during which it frequently changed hands, till in the English became masters of it.

Berwickshire 32 , a fertile Scottish county between the Lammermoors, inclusive, and the Tweed; is divided into the Merse, a richly fertile plain in the S. Besant, Mrs. Besika Bay , a bay on the Asiatic coast, near the mouth of the Dardanelles. Besme , a Bohemian in the pay of the Duke of Guise; assassinated Coligny, and was himself killed by Berteauville, a Protestant gentleman, in Bessemer, Sir Henry , civil engineer and inventor, born at Charlton, Herts; of his many inventions the chief is the process, named after him, of converting pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled, and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination, a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade all over the world, leading, as has been calculated, to the production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth of the cost per ton Bessemer process.

See Bessemer. Bessus , a satrap of Bactria under Darius, who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela, but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother, by whom he was put to death, B. Bestiary , a name given to a class of books treating of animals, viewed allegorically. Bethany , village on E. Bethel i. Bethencourt , a Norman baron, in discovered and conquered the Canaries, and held them as a fief of the crown of Castile.

Bethlehem 3 , a village 6 m. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. Bethlen-Gabor , prince of Transylvania, assumed the title of king of Hungary; assisted Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war Bethnal Green , an eastern suburb of London, a parliamentary borough, a poor district, and scene of benevolent enterprises. Betterton, Thomas , born at Westminster, a tragic actor, and as such an interpreter of Shakespeare on, it is believed, the traditional lines. Betty, W. Henry , a boy actor, known as the Infant Roscius; amassed a fortune; lived afterwards retired Beuthen 36 , a manufacturing town in Prussian Silesia, in the centre of a mining district.

Beverley 12 , a Yorkshire manufacturing town, 8 m. Beverley, John , a learned man, tutor to the Venerable Bede, archbishop of York, and founder of a college for secular priests at Beverley; was one of the most learned men of his time; d. Bewick, William , a great wood-engraver; did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe Beypur , a port in the Madras presidency, a railway terminus, with coal and iron in the neighbourhood. Beyrout , the most nourishing commercial city on the coast of Syria, and the port of Damascus, from which it is distant 55 m.

Bezants , Byzantine gold coins of varying weight and value, introduced by the Crusaders into England, where they were current till the time of Edward III. Bhartrihari , Indian author of apothegms, who appears to have lived in the 11th century B. Bhils , a rude pro-Aryan race of Central India, still untrained to settled life; number , Bhod-pa , name given to the aborigines of Thibet, and applied by the Hindus to all the Thibetan peoples.

Bhutan 20 , an independent state in the Eastern Himalayas, with magnificent scenery; subsidised by Britain; has a government like that of Thibet; religion the same, though the people are at a low stage of civilisation; the country exports horses, musk, and salt. Africa; includes several islands, and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers. Biarritz , a bathing-place on the Bay of Biscay, 6 m. Bias , one of the seven wise men of Greece, born at Priene, in Ionia; lived in the 6th century B. Bible, The i. Jerome, A. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written throughout, not in a speculative or a scientific, but a spiritual interest, and that its final aim is to guide men in the way of life. The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of conviction; its essence, both in the root of it and the fruit of it, is faith, and that primarily in a moral power above, and ultimately a moral principle within, both equally divine.

The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine commands is the one foundation of all well-being, individual and social. Biblia Pauperum i. Bible of the Poor , a book consisting of some 50 leaves, with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ, and explanatory inscriptions, printed, from wooden blocks, in the 15th century, and before the invention of printing by movable types.

Bickerstaff, Isaac , an Irish dramatist of 18th century, whose name was adopted as a nom de plume by Swift and Steele. Bickersteth, Edward , English clergyman; author of several evangelical works, and one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance Bickerton, Sir Richard , vice-admiral, served in several naval engagements, and died commander-in-chief at Plymouth in Biddery ware , ware of tin, copper, lead, and zinc, made at Bidar, in India. Bidding Prayer , an exhortation to prayer in some special reference, followed by the Lord's Prayer, in which the congregation joins.

Biddle, John , a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. Biela's Comet , a comet discovered by Biela, an Austrian officer, in ; appears, sometimes unobserved, every six years. Bielefeld 39 , a manufacturing town in Westphalia, with a large trade in linen, and the centre of the trade. Bienne, Lake of , in the Swiss canton of Berne; the Aar is led into it when in flood, so as to prevent inundation below; on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings, and an island in it, St. Pierre, the retreat of Rousseau in Bigelow, Erastus Brigham , American inventor of weaving machines, born in Massachusetts Big-endians , a name given to the Catholics, as Little-endians is the name given to the Protestants, in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput, of which the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they break their eggs at the big end.

Biggar , a town in Lanarkshire, birthplace of Dr. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry. Biglow , imaginary author of poems in the Yankee dialect, written by James Russell Lowell. Bile , a fluid secreted from the blood by the liver to aid in digestion, the secretion of which is most active after food. Billingsgate , a fish-market in London, below London Bridge; also a name given to low, coarse language indulged in there.

Bilney, Thomas , martyr, born in Norfolk, a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine; was twice arraigned, and released on promise not to preach, but could not refrain, and was at last burned as a heretic in Bilocation , the power or state, ascribed to certain of the saints, of appearing in two places at the same time. Bimini , a fabulous island with a fountain possessed of the virtue of restoring youth. Bingen , a manufacturing and trading town on the left bank of the Rhine, in Grand-Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt, opposite which is the tower associated with the myth of Bishop Hatto.

Biogenesis , name of the theory that derives life from life, and opposed to Abiogenesis q. Biology , the science of animal life in a purely physical reference, or of life in organised bodies generally, including that of plants, in its varied forms and through its successive stages. Bion , a Greek pastoral poet of 3rd century B. Biot, Jean Baptiste , an eminent French mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, born at Paris; professor of Physics in the College of France; took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago; made observations on the polarisation of light, and contributed numerous memoirs to scientific journals; wrote works on astronomy Bartholomew Massacre Birch, Thomas , antiquary, born in London; wrote a history of the Royal Society Birch-Pfeiffer, Charlotte , actress, born in Stuttgart; acted in Berlin; wrote dramas Bird, Golding , M.

Bird's nest , the nest of a species of swift, formed from a marine plant that has been first digested by a bird, and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese. Biren, Duke of Courland , son of a peasant, favourite of the Russian Empress Anne; held the reins of government even after her death; ruled with great cruelty; was banished to Siberia, but recalled, and had his honours restored to him, which in six years after he relinquished in favour of his eldest son Birkbeck, George , M. Birkenhead , in Cheshire, on the Mersey, opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it; a town of rapid growth, due to the vicinity of Liverpool; has large shipbuilding-yards and docks.

Birkenhead, Sir John , a political writer, several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism Birmingham , in the NW. All kinds of engines and machinery, fine gold, silver, copper, and brass ware, cutlery and ammunition are made here; steel pens, buttons, nails, and screws are specialties. It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings, libraries, art gallery and museums, educational institutions, a cathedral, and a great town-hall, where the triennial musical festival is held. Biron, Duc de , son of the preceding; served also bravely under Henry IV. Bishop , originally an overseer of souls, eventually an overseer of churches, especially of a district, and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them.

Bishop-Auckland 10 , a market-town 9 m. Summoned in by King William to be his political adviser, his influence was at first distrusted, but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein by force of arms in raised him into general favour. His treatment of Napoleon III. To the surprise of nearly all Europe, the Germans proved to be a nation of soldiers, marshalled as army never was before, and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. Count Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France, that still threatened, as well as that of Austria, helpless at his feet, the German empire restored under a Hohenzollern king, and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he had served so well.

Nothing he did after this—though he reformed the coinage, codified the law, established protection, increased the army, and repressed Socialism—equalled this great feat, and for this a grateful nation must ever honour his name. If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession of William II. Bithur , a town on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m. Bithynia , a country in the NW. Bitlis 25 , a high-lying town in Asiatic Turkey, 62 m. Bitumen , an inflammable mineral substance, presumably of vegetable origin, called Naphtha when liquid and light-coloured, Petroleum when less fluid and darker, Maltha when viscid, and Asphalt when solid. Bitzius , a Swiss author, composed stories of Swiss life under the nom de plume of Jeremias Gotthelf, fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth; he is much admired by Ruskin; was by profession a Protestant pastor, the duties of which he continued to discharge till his death Bizerta 10 , a seaport of Tunis, northernmost town in Africa, 38 m.

Black, Joseph , a celebrated chemist, born at Bordeaux, of Scotch parents; the discoverer of what has been called latent heat, but what is really transformed energy; professor of Chemistry, first in Glasgow, then in Edinburgh, where his lectures were very popular; his discoveries in chemistry were fruitful in results Black Assize , a plague at Oxford in , which carried off victims; caught at the assize from the prisoners under trial. Black Death , a name given to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world from China to Ireland in the 14th century, believed to be the same as the Oriental plague, though attended with peculiar symptoms; the most serious was that of , which, as is reckoned, stripped England alone of one-third of its inhabitants.

Black Forest , a wooded mountain chain ft. Black Friars , monks of the Dominican order; name of a district in London where they had a monastery. Black Hole of Calcutta , a confined apartment 13 ft. Black Lands , lands in the heart of Russia, extending between the Carpathians and the Urals, constituting one-third of the soil, and consisting of a layer of black earth or vegetable mould, of from 3 to 20 ft. Black Monday , Easter Monday in , remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed, and an intense cold, under which many died. Black Saturday , name given in Scotland to Saturday, 4th August ; a stormy day of great darkness, regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy.

Black Sea , or Euxine , an inland sea, lying between Europe and Asia, twice the size of Britain, being m. It has but one island, Adassi, off the mouths of the Danube; no reefs or shoals; hence in summer navigation is very safe. In winter it is harassed by severe storms. For three centuries the Turks excluded all other nations from its waters; but the Russians , Austrians , French and English secured trading rights. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it, but other warships are excluded.

Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean, and it has no noticeable tides. Black Watch , two Highland regiments, the 42nd and 73rd, so called from the dark colour of the tartan; raised originally for the preservation of the peace in the Highlands. Blackburn , a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 21 m. Blackheath , a common 7 m. Blacklock, Thomas , a clergyman, born in Annan, blind from early infancy; after occupying a charge for two years, set up as a teacher in Edinburgh; was influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate, and may be credited, therefore, with saving for his country and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's sons Blackpool 23 , a watering-place on the coast of Lancashire, 18 m. Blackwell, Alexander , adventurer, born in Aberdeen; studied medicine; took to printing; thrown into prison for debt; was supported by his wife; on his release went to Sweden, was patronised by the king; convicted of conspiracy, and beheaded in Blackwell, Elizabeth , a lady doctor, born in Bristol, and the first to hold a medical diploma in the United States; graduated in ; was admitted into the Maternity Hospital in Paris, and to St.

Bartholomew's in London, and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer; b. Blackwood, Sir Henry , British admiral, much trusted by Nelson; distinguished at Aboukir Bay and Trafalgar; was present at Nelson's death; held subsequently high naval positions Blackwood, William , born in Edinburgh, originator of Blackwood's Magazine ; originally a bookseller; started Maga , as it was called, in , his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson and Lockhart; conducted it as editor till his death John , his third son, his successor, no less distinguished in the cause of literature Blaeu, Willem Janzsoon , Dutch cartographer, born at Alkmaar; his terrestrial and celestial globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy Blainville, Henri Marie , a French naturalist; devoted himself to medicine; became assistant to Cuvier; succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy; wrote largely on natural science, and particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a professor Blanc, Charles , a French art critic, brother of Louis Blanc Blanc, Mont , the highest mountain in Europe, 15, ft.

Blanchard, Laman , a prolific periodical and play writer, born at Yarmouth; a man of a singularly buoyant spirit, crushed by calamities; died by suicide Louis; regent of France during the minority of her son and during his absence in crusade; governed with great discretion and firmness; died of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention to stay in the Holy Land Blandrata, Giorgio , Piedmontese physician, who for his religious opinions was compelled to take refuge, first in Poland, then in Transylvania, where he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism Blanqui, Adolphe , a celebrated French publicist and economist, born at Nice; a disciple of J.

Blanqui, Louis Auguste , a brother of the preceding, a French republican of extreme views and violent procedure; would appear to have posed as a martyr; spent nearly half his life in prison Blarney-stone , a stone in Castle Blarney, Cork, of difficult access, which is said to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue, hence the application of the word. Blasius, St. Blatant Beast , Spenser's name for the ignorant, slanderous, clamour of the mob. Blavatsky, Mme. Bleek, Wm. Blefuscu , an island separated from Lilliput by a strait yards wide, inhabited by pigmies; understood to represent France. Blenheim , a village in Bavaria, near Augsburg; famous for Marlborough's victory in , and giving name to it.

Blenheim Park , near Woodstock, Oxford, the gift, with the Woodstock estate, of the country to the Duke of Marlborough, for his military services in the Spanish Succession war. Blicher, Steen Steensen , Danish poet of rural life Bligh, Wm. Wales, but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct Blimber, Mrs. Blois , capital of the deps. Blomfield , bishop of London, born at Bury St. Edmunds; Greek scholar; active in the Church extension of his diocese Blondel , a troubadour of the 12th century; a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion, who, it is said, discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he had composed together, and by the voice of Richard in responding to the strain.

Blondin, Charles , an acrobat and rope-dancer, born at St. Omer, France; celebrated for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope; b. Blood, Thomas, Colonel , an Irish desperado, noted for his daring attempts against the life of the Duke of Ormonde, and for carrying off the regalia in the Tower; unaccountably pardoned by Charles II. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy, and committed to the King's Bench, and released. Bloody Assizes , the judicial massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys during Circuit in Blount, Charles , a deist, born in London; assailant of revealed religion; was involved in all the controversies of the time; died by his own hand Blowpipe , a contrivance by which a current of air is driven through a flame, and the flame directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it.

Blue Mountains , a range of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. Bluebeard , a wealthy seigneur, the owner of a castle; marries a beautiful woman, and leaves her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence, with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors, an injunction which she fails to respect, and finds to her horror the remains of his former wives locked up in one of them; her disobedience is discovered, and she is to prepare for death, but is rescued, as she lies with her head on the block, by the timely arrival of her brothers, who at once despatch the husband to his merited doom.

Blue-books , Parliamentary documents bound in blue paper, as the corresponding documents in France are in yellow ; they have been published regularly since the beginning of the 18th century, those of a single session now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes. Blue-gown , in Scotland a beggar, a bedesman of the king, who wore a blue gown, the gift of the king, and had his license to beg.

Blue-stocking , a female pedant or femme savante , a name derived from a learned coterie, formed in the 15th century, at Venice, who wore blue stockings as a badge. Blum , a German politician, born at Cologne; tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political movement in Vienna in , a proceeding which created a wide-spread sensation at the time all over Europe; b. Blumenthal, Leonard von , field-marshal in the Prussian army; distinguished in the wars with Denmark, Austria, and France; an eminent strategist; b. Blunt, John Henry , D. Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar , a distinguished jurist, born at Zurich; an authority in international law; a liberal conservative both in Church and State; founder and president of the Protestant Union called the Protestantenverein Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems.

Boanerges i. Sons of Thunder , applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the vehemence of their zeal. Boaz and Jachin , two pillars of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple, signifying respectively strength and stability. Antoine faubourg, the type of the merry-andrew at country fairs. Boccherini, Luigi , a celebrated Italian musical composer, born at Lucca; was associated with Manfredi, the violinist; his works were numerous; appears to have lived in poverty and obscurity Bochart, Samuel , a Protestant divine, born at Rouen; pastor at Caen; a geographer and an Orientalist; wrote a treatise on sacred geography; celebrated for a nine-days' discussion with the Jesuit Verin Bodensee , another name for the Lake of Constance, well called the filter of the Rhine.

Bodleian Library , the university library of Oxford, founded, or rather restored, by Sir Thomas Bodley in ; enlarged from time to time by bequests, often munificent. It possesses , printed volumes and 30, MSS. Bodley, Sir Thomas , born at Exeter; employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent, where he collected a number of valuable books; bequeathed them and his fortune to the university library of Oxford, named after him Bodmin 5 , the county town of Cornwall, supersedes Truro as capital; an important agricultural centre; has large annual fairs for cattle, horses, and sheep.

Bodoni , an Italian printer; settled at Parma, where his press was set up in the ducal palace, whence issued magnificent editions of the classics, Horace, Virgil, Tacitus, Tasso, and, last of all, Homer. He was often tempted to Rome, but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the ducal house there Boeckh, Philip August , classical antiquary, born at Carlsruhe; professor of Ancient Literature in Berlin; a classic of the first rank, and a contributor on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning; was an eminently learned man, and an authority in different departments of learning Paul's by the Queen's desire He left writings which embody a scheme of mystical theology, setting forth the trinity in unity of the Hegelian system, that is, viewing the divine as it is in itself, as it comes out in nature, and as it returns to itself in the human soul Boehmer , a German historian, born at Frankfort; author of works on the Carlovingian period of history Boers i.

Africa; gave themselves to agriculture and cattle-rearing; settled at length in the Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves. It is regularly built, with innumerable churches, a mint, university, library, and observatory, and several schools. Though the country is fertile and the mountains rich in coal, iron, salt, and precious metals, its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade. Bog-trotter , a name given to the Scottish moss-troopers, now to certain Irish for their agility in escaping over bogs. Bohemia 5, , the most northerly province in Austria, two-thirds the size of Scotland; is encircled by mountains, and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries.

The mineral wealth is varied and great, including coal, the most useful metals, silver, sulphur, and porcelain clay. The climate is mild in the valleys, the soil fertile; flax and hops the chief products; forests are extensive. Dyeing, calico-printing, linen and woollen manufactures, are the chief industries. The glassware is widely celebrated; there are iron-works and sugar-refineries. The transit trade is very valuable. The people are mostly Czechs, of the Slavonic race, Roman Catholics in religion; there is a large and influential German minority of about two millions, with whom the Czechs, who are twice as numerous, do not amalgamate; the former being riled at the official use of the Czech language, and the latter agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status as that of Hungary.

Education is better than elsewhere in Austria; there is a university at Prague, the capital. In the 16th century the crown was united with the Austrian, but in religious questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V. This was followed by the Thirty Years' War, the extermination of the Protestants, and the restoration of the Austrian House. Bohemian , name given to one who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality. Bohemian Brethren , a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites, organised as United Brethren in ; broken up in the Thirty Years' War, met in secret, and were invited, under the name of Moravians or Herrnhuters, by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate.

Bohemond , first prince of Antioch, son of Robert Guiscard; set out on the first crusade; besieged and took Antioch; was besieged in turn by the Saracens, and imprisoned for two years; liberated, he collected troops and recaptured the city Bonn, Henry George , an enterprising publisher, a German, born in London; issued a series of works identified with his name Petersburg; author, among other works, of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols. Boii , an ancient people of Gaul, occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire. Bois-Guillebert , a French economist, cousin of Vauban; advocate of free trade; d.

Bois-le-Duc 27 , capital of North Brabant, 45 m. The surface is arid, and cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus, Zarafshan, and Karshi. In the sands of the Oxus, gold and salt are found. Rice, cotton, and cereals are grown; silk, cotton-thread, jewellery, cutlery, and firearms are manufactured. The people are of Turk and Persian origin. The capital, Bokhara 70 , is on the plain of the Zarafshan, a walled, mud-built city, 8 or 9 m.

It has important trade and large slave markets. Boleslaus , the name of several dukes of Poland, of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. Bolingbroke, Henry St. The 'Letter to Windham,' a sort of apologia, and the 'Ideal of a Patriot King,' exhibit him at his best. Bolivar, Simon , surnamed the Liberator, general and statesman, born at Caracas; a man of good birth and liberal education; seized with the passion for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris, devoted himself to the cause of S.

America Bolivia 1, , an inland republic of S. America, occupying lofty tablelands E. The S. The very varied heights afford all kinds of vegetation, from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. In the lower plains coffee, tobacco, cotton, and cinchona are cultivated. Just look at this mental diarrhea:. Zhukov also commanded rapist armies in a system that not only made surrender a capital offense, but that also went after the entire family of Russian rapist soldiers who surrendered. But as is usual with typical Russian depravity, this is only the beginning. So they started the raping.. I sincerely hope so—but I doubt it. This time might be different.

Now listen, boys and girls. No, we do not. In fact very few of us do. The belief we did was once widely held by old stock white Americans, and, I was surprised to find out, by blacks descended from slaves as well. The reverse is very true. All tested seem to have some European descent. White people had to destroy the Indians. Indians were cruel, illiterate, murdering, thieving savages. The best thing that ever happened in North America was the bringing of civilization by Whites and the utter defeat of the Indians. ALL successful civilizations are based on the successful application of organized violence and force. Civilization is dying now because Whites have temporarily forgotten this eternal verity. Jews have systematically destroyed civilization and legalized their own criminal traditions.

Our entire economy, government, foreign policy and media are simply dictated by Jews. Jews are the self-declared enemies of Whites, and have been the main force for importing millions of third-world savages into White countries. Which means that very soon we will have another version of the old Indian Wars. We will win that one too. Good point. Looks like CIA just did its first operation, Aug. Breaking news. US servicemen killed and wounded, Afghans killed and wounded. Just like Kiev Maidan, kill some on both sides to get the chaos off to a good start. A CIA specialty. Cicero, the greatest orator and lawyer in Rome learnt how to talk, memorise and argue from the Greeks, but it is wrong to think Romans understood Greek except for an educated few.

Athena, the Greek goddess, was also a Frisian. As I understand it, Ancient Latin as spoken in Rome, was to all intents and purposes invented by Renaissance man. No one actually knows how Ancient Latin sounded today or at the time of the Renaissance. And the Latin spoken by the common people of Ancient Rome is thought to be so completely different from anything that is known or accepted as likely today, that most Roman intelligencia of the day would have found it impossible to comprehend. The problem is that both the Greeks and Romans traded with, and interchanged ideas with, the Phoenicians, who were the only literate and numerate people in the Mediterranean basin. As a result no one has a clear understanding of culture or language especially pronunciation today.

The Germans were neither fascist nor racist. Please get your facts right. The USA today is fascist. Fascists are corporatists…government and business combine to rule and exploit the people. This is how Mussolini defines it and how Biden operates today in conjunction with big pharmaceutical companies. All races, even Jews, fought with and for National Socialist Germany. You are just so brainwashed by the Main Stream Media that you no longer know the truth. And you clearly do not have the ability to think for yourself either.

As the Russian general staff admitted at the end of the war, the Wehrmacht used the most effective and up to date tactics on the battlefield but lost because they were only able to field Divisions while the Russians were able to field over Now you can go to any US city and see young Americans nodding off in doorways and street corners, and overdoses have skyrocketed. Are there some in the ruling class who oppose that? Or is it that they want to abolish cash and put everyone on digital currency, in order to keep tighter control over the plebes, and the drug business relies on cash, so it has to go? Yes, I understand that the US had other reasons to occupy Afghanistan not for the women, just stop with that bs , but the drug running was a big part of it, imo.

Same thing happened with all the Trump scrubs. The Soviets readily admit the German qualitative advantage nearly defeated their quantitative advantage. Missed it by that much! Wagner never promoted The Holocaust. Gotterdammerung is end of gods and men alike and the restoration of primal nature. Hagen is drowned. The Rhinemaidens reclaim the Ring. Erda precedes all mankind, including the gods all simulacra. Those favored by gods, those chosen, are all dust.

All of humanity gets wiped from the face of the Earth, not just Israel. But Wagner would not have liked them. I just heard General McKenzie on tv re the airport situation, and he seemed very proficient, forthcoming, and professional. McKenzie said that they have hi-tech defensive weapons against mortars. Still, if the mortar round should get through and damage that runway, I hope they have some quick-drying cement. Also, for detecting explosive vests that people boarding the plane might be wearing, what they need are dogs. I wonder if he has dogs. That is a misconception.

Rely on your family genealogy to tell you if your great-grandmother was Cherokee, not a DNA test. Elizabeth Warren is a case in point. Its not that complicated. Not just baseline taxes but all the loopholes they can take advantage of. So the middle class gets less and less and less. The poor get taken care of. So yeah its usually only the wealthy or the ppor who want to migrate to the US. Middle class elsewhere tend to prefer to stay home. Every Pentagon General talks smoothly and polished. Why do I read The Saker each and every morning? Because, first, he puts it out there, and then the comments come. Long live both streams! It sure beats the nonsense that comes out of the MSM. I had to stop reading when this idiot tried to describe the settling and founding of the USA as done by thugs.

Not only does this nutbag write about 6, words too many in every article, he just goes off the rails constantly with preposterous nonsense like this. On September 7 the Swedish aid agency Swedish Committee for Afghanistan reported that the previous week US soldiers raided one of its hospitals. It was poor German logistics together with an inability to deal with the Soviet tactic of concentrating all resources where there was a breakthrough in the German line.

The French worked out this tactic in and the Germans never managed to effectively counter it. The Soviets adopted the French development and enhanced it by throwing every available unit in to every breach they forced in the German lines. What really did it ultimately was US logistics in maintaining unbroken continuous materiel supplies to Russia. Whereas the Germans were always short of something: food: ammunition: medicine: men: armour: aircraft etc. The Germans had strict rules against fraternizing with natives.

What source do you base your slander on? Eli Wiesel? Barbara Lippstadt? The cannon fodder division I think. Kind of like for profit prisons. It can be managed like a business. But at least it is entertaining. So, how does this translate into the perspective held by Native Americans and those dragged over the Atlantic Ocean to work the cotton fields…? Here hundreds of comments lament the Saker swallowing the whole Covid garbage. Just as celebrities were paid to promote the Covid narrative would it be a surprise if Saker and Moon of Alabama were offered a nice cash surprise to go along with the narrative? Since the Ukraine, Saker has pretended to be this military expert but really he gives us nothing we do not already know.

Bad grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes throughout the article and the conclusions are not worth entertaining as even plausible. It reads as though it was translated from Russian and the meaning was lost in translation. For example Hans Peter Richter says, in The Time Of The Young Soldiers , that when he was in hospital recuperating from a wound, he and the others in the ward attempted to gang rape the Russian nurse taking care of them.

It was all planned. They surely could have done a safe evacuation. Your Russian is definitely better than his English! You must be a solid linguist. How many languages do you speak, by the way? I have been predicting for many months a sudden massive rise in ISIS attacks to sabotage the Amerikastani withdrawal. I expected a massive attack on Kabul complete with car bombs and captives beheaded on video by ISIS in an attempt to stop the withdrawal which would have benefitted both Ghani and the Amerikastani state opposed to the withdrawal. Most presidents wait until their second term to worry about legacy, but Biden may not have that long. Keep in mind that the Germans in the west front were Hitler youth.

Many of those kids were 14 and 15 years old. Average German age on that front was Allies fought German kids and had a tough time. The story is that he was reckless and stupid….. Which at the time it was written was a majority of Americans. As to Blacks removed from the hell hole of equatorial east African, and dragged across the Atlantic to work cotton fields, they were the most fortunate people to ever live. The US has been bombing and maiming Asians for so long, and now it will be shut out from the mainland.

There will be trade, but the US will find it harder to interfere. Just that stubborn little pustule in the far west, infecting Palestine. He is a crypto-Jew and you unmasked him with your clever findings! There is no macedonian language you serboman ignoramus. The current slavic macedonians are Bulgarians and their language is a dialect of Bulgarian, ask eny linguist to explain this to you. Analyze what the jew media is doing. They threw Biden under the bus in a millisecond……to shove blood and dead Americans in your face…. When you see a clip with blood on the TV….. You wanna go kill some muslims? To justify more wars for Israel, more aggression in the ME. To get more southern white boys killed for Israel. With that, Iran will emerge as the regional hegemon on the strengths of its civilizational depth and its resource wealth.

The one remaining wild card is Turkey, and it may take a few hard knuckle raps to keep Erdogan on the narrow path. True — the bombs were intended to keep us involved. Babies were tossed into the air and caught on bayonets. Unborn fetuses were gouged out with bayonets from pregnant women. I know that in two other medias from diferent countries in Europe, somebody is also using that name. And having quite the same political views like you. The media failed in largely being stenographers for Pentagon, State and CIa, who lied to the American people and in the end, to themselves. Rap music: mindless, small minded, superficial, materialistic, and all about ego, bravado, false sense of self. White Woke dudes actually cheer Blacks taking their women. Saker is not convincing at all.

His self-righteous tone is irritating. I attribute that to his religious make-up…dealing with absolutes of good and evil. Maybe if you believe in magic and some kind of deity then his ramblings make more sense, but I do not see how the empire is dead. The empire is not dead and arbitrary dates do not mean much. As long as oil is flowing and the dollar is being spent, we have to contend with the empire. Maybe if the US makes the mistake of tangling with Russia or China then it will die, but so will the rest of us…not much of a consolation. If the US empire takes a breather and then returns to slamming shitty little countries against the wall, once in a while, then the status quo will continue….

So, I would like the empire to be dead, but wishing something does not make it so — praying for miracles never works. This morning, I went to a deserted beach in provincial Ukraine. A short while later, many Afghani women and kids showed up. They spoke Persian. There is no social security here. I hope they have made enough from you guess what to live here. The elites are on the verge of instituting a 1 party socialist state on the most freedom-loving and heavily armed people in history. The most likely explanation of the calamitous withdrawal is that it was intentional, at least on the part of the MIC and CIA who stand to lose a lot of power and money.

It is not surprising that the descendants of Nazi cutthroats are trying to besmirch the heroic sacrifice of the USSR. Less predictable was that the EU Nazi Reich would rise so soon — like an anti-Phoenix and threaten Russia openly only few decades after the greatest holocide in history — that of the Slavs. Nothing is forgiven, nothing is forgotten. True… But even then the Brits mainly lost because when the New Americans declared independence it was too far… And even then the fight was pretty close — but had it been closer…. They could have just bought those resources.

Tzarist Russia was quite resource rich but had its own Empire too. There was also prestige and ego clashes in between the powers. Ego clash. Grown ups are not that different from kids. The Fed can just keep the printing presses rolling, incurring trillions more debt each year which no other country is able to do , but for how much longer? When the rug of its reserve currency status is pulled out from under it, as is sooner or later bound to happen, the US will be no more, and will never again be a main player on the world stage. It suggests what might happen when a failing empire goes a bridge too far in a vain attempt to maintain its status as Hegemon. You are completely ignkrant if you think there was no civilization in the Americas… You learned the wrong history.

Okay then.. Yes to all three. The Saker is an incurable Orthodox Christer. He is extremely irritating also because every time he scribbles something he always uses the opportunity to peddle his abysmally infantile religious beliefs. Saker should at least read once more once he finishes his articles. It has been getting worse but this one is incomprehensible and appears to be articles to be merged into one. Besides, his answers to the very important questions he asks are not convincing that US public or whatever they think does not have any impact on any important decision. The withdrawal from Afghanistan and leaving their only foothold in the central asia is a very important decision and has to be explained with a lot more convincing arguments.

I think it has something to do with the recent decline in the relative military power of the US but real military analysts should answer this question; The Saker in this respect failed. Well, true, but the Spaniards did a great thing wiping it out:. You forgot Mongolia, it also send vast quantities of food and wool to the USSR to help it crush the Nazis and their allies. His presentism fallacy is always ridiculous it comes to the Papacy. Apparently, he thinks it should have responded to hearing about the new world by proposing an NGO to deal with it. You mean the whites Anglos and Jews. The descendants of black slaves; the so called Negros still have 0.

Can anyone possibly believe in the sterling qualities of British Intelligence when those highly-paid and eventually-decorated professionals permitted 4 boatloads of Czech-made Semtex [TM] explosive, plus East-bloc-origin firearms and ammunition, be safely unloaded on the Irish coast. The boats were loaded with their lethal cargoes in Libyan ports, passed through the Straits of Gibraltar, and arrived safe and sound in Irish waters, undetected by anyone. Considering that the I. Or remakes thereof featuring Austin Powers and Johnny English. When the late Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith was the U. Ambassador in Dublin, any classified information that the British shared with the Americans was in the hands of the I.

I do consider you the only real authoritative historian on this website. So do me a little favor. Is the comment correct? Thanking you for your appreciation, I confirm that comment is by and large correct. From the years of Hellenic to the years of the Eastern Holy Roman Empire to the years of the British, 70 of the Soviet and now the American , it is readily apparent that history has sped up the decline. America is over the cusp and every indicator shows the decline: economic, military, industrial, moral decadence etc..

The end is nigh. It is amzing to notice how US and Afghanistan look alike in some aspects. There is no one defined Afghan identity as there is no one defined US identity. Strange but true. Mongolians were starved and their wool and food were stolen by Jewish kommissars. You Stalin worshippers are just as oblivious as the Vaccine pushers. Russians were even bigger victims of Judeo-Communism than Germany was, but all the good Russians were talmudically eliminated long before WWII even started. What remains are the idiot Stalin lovers.

I have to shake my head whenever anyone quotes Solzhenitsyn about how if only Russians had united together to resist the Hebrew Bolshevic blood sacrificers when they arrived in the night they could have stopped the revolution. Solzhenitsyn himself was completely brain washed until he witnessed the way Stalin and his Jew henchmen were deliberately sacrificing millions of Russian youth to German machine gun and cannon fire. Russians have been professional victims, better known as slaves, to the Hebrew for over years. Germany has been for 70 years. The US is now on the threshold of a complete and total Jew coup. All of them have been figuratively anally raped by the Jew, but the way Russians love Stalin is proof that they actually enjoyed it. Lately you surpass yourself Schmutzik!

Keep going, we need our moments of comic relief. Looking forward for your to hearing from you. Quite stunning really that all those accumulated years of education at military academies did not find it possible to inculcate those hard learned lessons in the minds of todays leadership. Somewhere around December , Lidia gave birth to a baby who died soon afterwards: Stalin made no comment but was definitely in Kureika at the time. Yup, you got that right. Stalin sacrificed his first born to Satan. Of course that was peanuts compared to the hundreds of millions of -mostly Russians- whose souls Djugasvili son of a jew would send to Satan.

Yet Russians worship him. Go figure. The Saker is a very smart fella. However, the current withdrawal from Afghanistan is best understood by the collapse of the oxycodone market. This was processed and sold to a gullible medical establishment and public as wonder drug. However, the collapse of that U. Likewise, the creation of a legal cannabis market in the U.

It is always a good idea to follow the money. And Hitler had both balls shut off. That is why he did have this squeaky voice. He could not have a sex. Yours is one of the most insightful comments on the thread. This cooperation specifically Iran and Russia goes back clearly to Syria. Prior to Russia getting involved — it was Iran and by extension Hezbollah from Lebanon who kept the Assad government from being toppled by Sunni western backed militants.

Now as you pointed out — Afghanistan a similar thing has occurred. Does Saker think that Biden is in charge of anything? US presidents have been powerless figureheads for decades. They only have as much power as the system will allow. Please explain why Japan is unable to get along with South Korea then…. The object of war is to win by achieving objectives. Killing is a byproduct of this. Dying is as well. Neither is strictly necessary. The willingness to sacrifice oneself is a much harder psychological state to achieve than the willingness to kill the enemy. Therefore the willingness to sacrifice oneself is a force multiplier. Paradoxically, willingness to take casualties can lead to fewer overall casualties if the conflict is executed with sufficient speed an violence and resolved quickly.

If fought with casualty avoidance as a high priority, it can drag on indecisively, consuming lives more slowly, but with a higher body count overall. I made it about two thirds the way through this dribble before I realized I was wasting my time reading a crackpot. The blaming Rome and the Papal Crusades for the end of our happy, cooperative, peaceful ancient world, or so it reads is nonsense. The crusades were a reaction to endless Muslim aggression.

We do not know if it was misinformation, an injury incurred from the bomb placed under his table, or a birth defect. I agree that belief whatever it is will tend to defeat unbelief. People whose main motive is, say, the Yankee dollar will collapse the minute they are no longer propped up. The VC woman sniper in the film may not have known the works of Marx and Lenin back to front, or perhaps at all, but it was not the Yankee dollar she was working for.

The real proof that the empire is nearing death will be when people from all over the world stop trying to migrate to the US. Not wishing for the empire to endure, simply stating the sad reality. Is that all you want by way of change? One tyrant down, another tyrant up? Why not hope for peace and an end to imperial outposts? Why not an Isreal and ME at peace with itself and neighbors, free from all outside power games? Israel is not sustainable in its current form. Its ideology and presence has ever been a locus of social and political instability. That probably entails a radical change in its demographics, certainly a redefinition of its borders and a gain of useful function so it can contribute to solutions rather than the opposite.

Too many of the regimes in the region are marginally stable internally and vulnerable externally. A strong hand on the tiller can keep them from panicking through the rough waters ahead. His decision to change his name to Stalin is also strong evidence that he was Jewish. I certainly carry my family name with pride and honor, unlike Djugashvili who clearly was ashamed of his jewish heritage. What is clear is that all these crypto-jews need to be DNA tested so that we can connect the blood lines and determine who really is running the planet. It is:. The 10,tonne unit will arrive in Murmansk in northwestern Russia in 25 days. That second article is actually quite fascinating.

Here are a few tidbits:. Makes sense since Stalin spoke Yiddish and was married to Jewesses who spoke the same. For 28 years, through purge, terror, and paranoia, they presented world-class theater in Yiddish. Stalin his wife and children and even Beria where sitting around the dinner table speaking Yiddish with each other. The language the Macedonians spoke was Greek. The Athenians hated the Macedonians and regarded them as country bumpkins. They thought that even after Alexander broke them and rubbed their noses in it. Bulgars later overran most of what was the European portion of the Macedonian Empire, with the Seljuks following them. Much of German logistics was carried in horse drawn wagons. Russians like to say that was Russia that beat the Germans.

That is simply propaganda. It was US production and supply to everyone that beat the Germans and Japanese. Saker is pulling his usual nonsense in this screed. He gets a few things right, but proceeds to draw idiotic conclusions. Russia is still an empire. She lost a good bit of imperial territory when the Soviet regime fell, but it still maintains a lot of non-Russian nationalities under its thumb. The Ukrainians are looking west, while Russia still looks east. The most damaging invasion was that of the Mongols.

The Germans were rank amateurs in comparison. Muscovy is still run by an uncivilized rabble that thinks only of its own power and privilege, and nothing of the nationalities Muscovy still holds captive. Turkey is a big loser in the Afghan debacle. At any rate, things are on the m0ve. The draft deal will be finalised after the US withdrawal is completed next week… The main points of the draft deal include: — Turkey recognising the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan — Turkey and Qatar operating the airport in a consortium — Ankara providing security through a private firm, whose staff will consist of former Turkish soldiers and police — That additional members of the Turkish special forces, operating in plainclothes to secure Turkish technical staff, do not leave the airport perimeter….

Turkey is, of course a major regional power and will remain so but its regional ambitions will have to be dialled back. I see The Saker has announced that he will no longer write for the Unz Review. The Russians designed the T on their own and it shocked the Germans. The Germans even considered cloning the tank for their own use but arrogant Hitler would of course never support such a plan. German technology was normally ahead of anyone else but the T was a game changer. Stalin secretly built thousands of Ts in remote factories. Even the Allies were completely unaware that the Russians were so heavily armed. In table talk Hitler refers to this as the key problem. They had no idea the Russians were capable of creating so many tanks.

In Stalingrad they were throwing men into tanks as they literally rolled out of the factory and into battle. The Russians also had better rifles. Only late in the war did he warm up to the idea of the German invented assault rifle. Even though the Germany infantry wanted a semi-auto it was Hitler alone that demanded they use bolt actions. It was also Hitler that ended most weapon related research since he assumed they had basically won in and Russia would be a breeze. As for logistics there was never really a plan. Hitler was warned that supply by rail would be a problem due to different rail gauges. Saker and his sycophant army simply cannot handle the truth.

Saker does not want to have to deal with these truths either. Like all your typical Russian strongmen thugs, Saker wants to play Tsar. He plays that role to perfection on his own blog where he eliminates opposition with a ban as quickly and easily as Stalin eliminated opposition with a bullet to the back of the head. They attempt to intellectualize it, but it is repugnant all the same, the sheer amount of open white supremacy they espouse there. Having said that, some of their content is unbelievably stupid, out of curiosity I perused a piece yesterday by one Andrew Anglin, in which he states, just brazen like, that whites are generally more intelligent than blacks.

What does he offer as evidence for this? Just his opinion , which readers are supposed to respect for reasons unknown. I find Ron Unz articles generally excellent, including his most recent contributions on the global pandemic. WWII Revisionism is a very serious and fact based analysis of Jewish lies, it is the opposite of the Stalinist apologists who live on the left. But the comments section is regularly infested with the most vituperously aggressive screeds. Identity politics construed around a core narrative of victimhood. Stalin spoke Georgian, Russian with a noticeable Georgian accent and apparently, according to his daughter, he could struggle through a German text with the help of a dictionary. That is it. Unlike many Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, he spent little time outside the Tsarist Empire and while people like Lenin and Trotsky were quite fluent in German, French and English, Stalin never became proficient in them and probably did not see the point of learning them.

The idea of him speaking Yiddish is frankly ludicrous. Despite being a Jew, it is not even clear that Trotsky spoke Yiddish — it was not widespread in Nikolayev, where he grew up, and compared to German which he did learn, it lacked social and administrative status. In fact ambitious Jews preferred German — it was close to Yiddish, which made it relatively easy for Yiddish speakers to learn, but was more useful than Yiddish in many contexts. The quotes above are not from the Saker, but from commentators reacting to his decision. Blaming the Saker for them would be like blaming your lack of brains on Ron Unz — it would make no sense. You have taught me an important lesson, Farhad.

It is possible for people to write sentences yet have zero reading comprehension. Here is what I wrote in my comment:. This is the problem with Unz allowing Stalin lovers to comment here, they are partially brain dead. You are projecting, neither Unz nor Raevsky are stupid, I assure you. Yes-the thought of the US Army smashed and driven back to the Channel is, indeed, alluring. After publishing in the last issue of the magazine an analysis of the May revolts and the strategies that will need to be adopted in future revolutions, [] the Situationist International was dissolved in Autonomism is a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement.

As an identifiable theoretical system it first emerged in Italy in the s from workerist operaismo communism. Through translations made available by Danilo Montaldi and others, the Italian autonomists drew upon previous activist research in the United States by the Johnson—Forest tendency and in France by the group Socialisme ou Barbarie. Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the Situationists , the failure of Italian far-left movements in the s and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the founding of Potere Operaio as well as Mario Tronti , Paolo Virno and Franco "Bifo" Berardi.

Unlike other forms of Marxism, autonomist Marxism emphasises the ability of the working class to force changes to the organization of the capitalist system independent of the state, trade unions or political parties. Autonomists are less concerned with party political organization than other Marxists, focusing instead on self-organized action outside of traditional organizational structures.

Autonomist Marxism is thus a "bottom up" theory which draws attention to activities that autonomists see as everyday working class resistance to capitalism, for example absenteeism, slow working and socialization in the workplace. All this influenced the German and Dutch autonomen, the worldwide Social Centre movement and today is influential in Italy, France and to a lesser extent the English-speaking countries. Those who describe themselves as autonomists now vary from Marxists to post-structuralists and anarchists. The autonomist Marxist and autonomen movements provided inspiration to some on the revolutionary left in English-speaking countries, particularly among anarchists, many of whom have adopted autonomist tactics.

Some English-speaking anarchists even describe themselves as autonomists. Today, it is associated also with the publication Multitudes. He was successful in the complementary elections of June 4. The Catalan politician Francesc Pi i Margall became the principal translator of Proudhon's works into Spanish and later briefly became president of Spain in while being the leader of the Federal Democratic Republican Party. The first movement of the Spanish workers was strongly influenced by the ideas of Pi y Margall, leader of the Spanish Federalists and disciple of Proudhon. Pi y Margall was one of the outstanding theorists of his time and had a powerful influence on the development of libertarian ideas in Spain.

His political ideas had much in common with those of Richard Price , Joseph Priestly [ sic ], Thomas Paine , Jefferson , and other representatives of the Anglo-American liberalism of the first period. He wanted to limit the power of the state to a minimum and gradually replace it by a Socialist economic order. He was one of the main propagators of anarchist thought in that area in the late 19th century and is considered to be perhaps the most beloved figure in the Spanish anarchist movement of the 19th century.

In Spain, he had contact with the anarchist thinkers and members of the Bakuninist Alliance, including Anselmo Lorenzo and Francisco Mora. The new decision-making process was founded on unanimity as each person had a right of veto on the orientations of the federation. The FCL published the same year the Manifeste du communisme libertaire. Several groups quit the FCL in December , disagreeing with the decision to present "revolutionary candidates" at the legislative elections. On 15—20 August , the 5th intercontinental plenum of the CNT took place. A group called Entente anarchiste Anarchist Agreement appeared, which was formed of militants who did not like the new ideological orientation that the OPB was giving the FCL, considering it authoritarian and almost Marxist.

This move alienated some members of the FCL and thus led to the end of the organization. There was a strong left-libertarian current in the British labour movement and the term "libertarian socialist" has been applied to a number of democratic socialists , including some prominent members of the British Labour Party. The Socialist League was formed in by William Morris and others critical of the authoritarian socialism of the Social Democratic Federation. It was involved in the new unionism , the rank-and-file union militancy of the s—s, which anticipated syndicalism in some key ways Tom Mann , a New Unionist leader, was one of the first British syndicalists.

The Socialist League was dominated by anarchists by the s. Others in the tradition of the ILP and described as libertarian socialists included Michael Foot and most importantly, G. Labour Party minister Peter Hain [] has written in support of libertarian socialism, identifying an axis involving a "bottom-up vision of socialism, with anarchists at the revolutionary end and democratic socialists [such as himself] at its reformist end" as opposed to the axis of state socialism with Marxist—Leninists at the revolutionary end and social democrats at the reformist end. Katja Kipping and Julia Bonk in Germany, Femke Halsema [] in the Netherlands and Ufuk Uras and the Freedom and Solidarity Party in Turkey are examples of a contemporary libertarian socialist politicians and parties operating within mainstream parliamentary democracies.

Many revolutionary youth organizations were born in these cultural centers. While not all squatted houses are aligned with separatist socialism, some of the most emblematic houses are more identified with the separatist movement, like the squatted house of Can Vies in Barcelona. It represents the neighborhood, the village, the town. They are the cradle of participatory democracy. In some of the towns where CUP holds the power, these open assemblies have received extra responsibilities and "devolved" powers. Libertarian possibilism was a political current within the early 20th-century Spanish anarchist movement which advocated achieving the anarchist ends of ending the state and capitalism with participation inside structures of contemporary parliamentary democracy.

Their current was called treintismo and they called for a more moderate political line within the Spanish anarchist movement. In , Horacio Prieto, general secretary of the CNT, proposed that the Iberian Anarchist Federation transform itself into a libertarian socialist party and that it participate in national elections. In November , the Popular Front appointed the prominent anarcha-feminist Federica Montseny as minister of health, becoming the first woman in Spanish history to be a cabinet minister. Merging aspects of anarchism , ecology , environmentalism , green politics , Marxism and socialism , eco-socialists generally believe that the capitalist system is the cause of social exclusion , inequality and environmental degradation.

Eco-socialists criticise many within the Green movement for not going far enough in their critique of the current world system and for not being overtly anti-capitalist. At the same time, eco-socialists would blame the traditional left for overlooking or not properly addressing ecological problems. Joel Kovel sees globalisation as a force driven by capitalism. In turn, the rapid economic growth encouraged by globalisation causes acute ecological crises. A 17th-century movement called the Diggers based their ideas on agrarian socialism.

Eco-socialism goes beyond a criticism of the actions of large corporations and targets the inherent properties of capitalism. Such an analysis follows Marx's theories about the contradiction between use values and exchange values. Within a market economy, goods are not produced to meet needs but are produced to be exchanged for money that we then use to acquire other goods. As we have to keep selling to keep buying, we must persuade others to buy our goods just to ensure our survival, which leads to the production of goods with no previous use that can be sold to sustain our ability to buy other goods. Eco-socialists like Kovel stress that this contradiction has reached a destructive extent, where certain essential activities such as caring for relatives full-time and basic subsistence are unrewarded while unnecessary economic activities earn certain individuals huge fortunes.

Some contemporary green anarchists can be described as anarcho-primitivists, or anti- civilization anarchists, although not all green anarchists are primitivists. Likewise, there is a strong critique of modern technology among green anarchists, although not all reject it entirely. Social ecologists often criticize the main currents of socialism for their focus and debates about politics and economics instead of a focus on eco-system human and environmental.

This theory promotes libertarian municipalism and green technology. Anarcho-primitivists often criticize mainstream socialism for supporting civilization and modern technology which they believe are inherently based on domination and exploitation. They instead advocate the process of rewilding or reconnecting with the natural environment. Veganarchism is the political philosophy of veganism more specifically animal liberation and green anarchism.

Georgism is an economic philosophy and ideology which holds that people own what they create, but that things found in nature, most importantly land , belong equally to all. His most famous work is Progress and Poverty , a treatise on inequality, the cyclic nature of industrialized economies and the use of the land value tax as a remedy. Georgists argue that a tax on land value is economically efficient , fair and equitable ; and that it can generate sufficient revenue so that other taxes e. A tax on land value has been described by many as a progressive tax since it would be paid primarily by the wealthy and would reduce economic inequality.

Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delaware , which was founded in by Frank Stephens and Will Price ; and Fairhope, Alabama , which was founded in by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation. Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public". Cole and influenced by the ideas of William Morris. Guild socialism was partly inspired by the guilds of craftsmen and other skilled workers which had existed in England during the Middle Ages.

In , Arthur Penty published Restoration of the Gild System in which he opposed factory production and advocated a return to an earlier period of artisanal production organised through guilds. The following year, the journal The New Age became an advocate of guild socialism, although in the context of modern industry rather than the medieval setting favoured by Penty. The guild socialists "stood for state ownership of industry, combined with "workers' control" through delegation of authority to national guilds organized internally on democratic lines. About the state itself they differed, some believing it would remain more or less in its existing form and others that it would be transformed into a federal body representing the workers' guilds, consumers' organizations, local government bodies, and other social structures".

In this work, guilds were presented as an alternative to state-control of industry or conventional trade union activity. Unlike the existing trade unions, guilds would not confine their demands to matters of wages and conditions, but would seek to obtain control of industry for the workers whom they represented. Ultimately, industrial guilds would serve as the organs through which industry would be organised in a future socialist society. The theory of guild socialism was developed and popularised by G. Cole who formed the National Guilds League in and published several books on guild socialism, including Self-Government in Industry and Guild Socialism Restated For scholar Charles Masquerade, "[i]t is by meeting such a twofold requirement that the libertarian socialism of G.

Cole could be said to offer timely and sustainable avenues for the institutionalization of the liberal value of autonomy By setting out to 'destroy this predominance of economic factors' Cole , through the re-organization of key spheres of life into forms of associative action and coordination capable of giving the 'fullest development of functional organisation' Cole effectively sought to turn political representation into a system actually capable of giving direct recognition to the multiplicity of interests making up highly complex and differentiated societies".

Revolutionary syndicalism is a type of economic system proposed as a replacement for capitalism and an alternative to state socialism , which uses federations of collectivised trade unions or industrial unions. It is a form of socialist economic corporatism that advocates interest aggregation of multiple non-competitive categorised units to negotiate and manage an economy. Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid. Local syndicates would communicate with other syndicates through the Bourse du Travail labor exchange which would manage and transfer commodities.

Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that combines anarchism and Christianity. More than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount and Jesus' call to not resist evil but turn the other cheek , are used as the basis for Christian anarchism. Christian anarchists are pacifists and oppose the use of violence, such as war. The Tolstoyans were a small Christian anarchist group formed by Tolstoy's companion Vladimir Chertkov — to spread Tolstoy's religious teachings.

Dorothy Day was an American journalist, social activist and devout Catholic convert who advocated the Catholic economic theory of distributism. Day "believed all states were inherently totalitarian" [] and was a self-labeled anarchist. The importance of Day within Catholicism goes to the extent that the cause for Day's canonization is open in the Catholic Church and she is thus formally referred to as a Servant of God.

Gandhism is the collection of inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi , who was a major political leader of India and the Indian independence movement. It is a body of ideas and principles that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Gandhi. It is particularly associated with his contributions to the idea and practice of nonviolent resistance , sometimes also called civil resistance. Gandhian economics are the socio-economic principles expounded by Gandhi.

It is largely characterised by its affinity to the principles and objectives of nonviolent humanistic socialism, but with a rejection of violent class war and promotion of socio-economic harmony. Gandhi's economic ideas also aim to promote spiritual development and harmony with a rejection of materialism. The term Gandhian economics was coined by J. Kumarappa , a close supporter of Gandhi. In order to achieve this means, he advocated trusteeship , decentralization of economic activities, labour intensive technology and priority to weaker sections. Gandhi also had letter communication with Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy and saw himself as his disciple.

Gandhi challenged future Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialization on the Soviet model, which Gandhi denounced as dehumanizing and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived. Historian Kuruvilla Pandikattu says that "it was Nehru's vision, not Gandhi's, that was eventually preferred by the Indian State".

His idea was that true self-rule in a country means that every person rules his or herself and that there is no state which enforces laws upon the people. Gandhian activists such as Vinoba Bhave and Jayaprakash Narayan were involved in the Sarvodaya movement, which sought to promote self-sufficiency amidst India's rural population by encouraging land redistribution , socio-economic reforms and promoting cottage industries. The movement sought to combat the problems of class conflict, unemployment and poverty while attempting to preserve the lifestyle and values of rural Indians, which were eroding with industrialisation and modernisation.

Sarvodaya also included Bhoodan , or the gifting of land and agricultural resources by the landlords called zamindars to their tenant farmers in a bid to end the medieval system of zamindari. The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution is a book written by dutch anarcho-pacifist Bart de Ligt which deals with nonviolent resistance in part inspired by the ideas of Gandhi. Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement based on the organisational theories in the tradition of Dielo Truda 's Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists Draft. The emergence of the New Left in the s and s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism.

In the United States, this was caused by a renewal of anarchism from the s forward through writers such as Paul Goodman and anarcho-pacifism which became influential in the anti-nuclear movement and anti war movements of the time and which incorporated both the influences of Gandhism and Tolstoyan Christian anarchism. In Australia, the Sydney Push was a predominantly left-wing intellectual subculture in Sydney from the late s to the early s which became associated with the label "Sydney libertarianism". By late , The Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts and performed works of political art.

Social ecology is closely related to the work and ideas of Murray Bookchin and influenced by anarchist Peter Kropotkin. Social ecologists assert that the present ecological crisis has its roots in human social problems and that the domination of human-over-nature stems from the domination of human-over-human. Bookchin later developed a political philosophy to complement social ecology which he called Communalism spelled with a capital C to differentiate it from other forms of communalism. While originally conceived as a form of social anarchism , he later developed Communalism into a separate ideology which incorporates what he saw as the most beneficial elements of anarchism, Marxism, syndicalism and radical ecology. Politically, Communalists advocate a network of directly democratic citizens' assemblies in individual communities or cities organized in a confederated fashion.

The method used to achieve this is called libertarian municipalism and involves the establishment of face-to-face democratic institutions which grow and expand confederally with the goal of eventually replacing the nation-state. Unlike anarchists, Communalists are not opposed to taking part in parliamentary politics—especially municipal elections—as long as candidates are libertarian socialist and anti-statist in outlook.

Democratic confederalism is the proposal of a libertarian socialist political system that "is open towards other political groups and factions. It is flexible, multi-cultural , anti-monopolistic, and consensus-oriented ". The central pillars of democratic confederalism are social ecology and anarcha-feminism. In his book, he says: "The stronger the participation the more powerful is this kind of democracy.

While the nation-state is in contrast to democracy, and even denies it, democratic confederalism constitutes a continuous democratic process". Participism is a 21st century form of libertarian socialism. It comprises two related economic and political systems called participatory economics or "parecon" and participatory politics or "parpolity". Parecon is an economic system proposed primarily by activist and political theorist Michael Albert and radical economist Robin Hahnel , among others. It uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the production, consumption and allocation of resources in a given society. Proposed as an alternative to contemporary capitalist market economies and also an alternative to centrally planned socialism or coordinatorism, it is described as "an anarchistic economic vision" and it could be considered a form of socialism as under parecon the means of production are owned by the workers.

It proposes to attain these ends mainly through the following principles and institutions: workers' and consumers' councils utilizing self-managerial methods for decision making, balanced job complexes, remuneration according to effort and sacrifice and participatory planning. Under parecon, the current monetary system would be replaced with a system of non-transferable "credit" which would cease to exist upon purchase of a commodity.

Parpolity is a theoretical political system proposed by Stephen R. It was developed as a political vision to accompany parecon. Participism as a whole is critical of aspects of modern representative democracies and capitalism arguing that the level of political control by the people is not sufficient. To address this problem, parpolity suggests a system of "Nested Councils", which would include every adult member of a given society. Under participism , the state as such would dissolve into a mere coordinating body made up of delegates which would be recallable at any time by the nested council below them.

Inclusive Democracy is a political theory and political project that aim for direct democracy, economic democracy in a stateless , moneyless and marketless economy, self-management democracy in the social realm and ecological democracy. According to Arran Gare , Towards an Inclusive Democracy "offers a powerful new interpretation of the history and destructive dynamics of the market and provides an inspiring new vision of the future in place of both neo-liberalism and existing forms of socialism".

An artificial market is proposed by this tendency as a solution to the problem of maintaining freedom of choice for the consumer within a marketless and moneyless economy, an artificial market operates in much the same way as traditional markets, but uses labour vouchers or personal credit in place of traditional money. According to Takis Fotopoulos, an artificial market "secures real freedom of choice, without incurring the adverse effects associated with real markets".

Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasizes the theme of insurrection within anarchist practice. It is critical of formal organizations such as labor unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses. Instead, insurrectionary anarchists advocate informal organization and small affinity group -based organization. Insurrectionary anarchists put value in attack, permanent class conflict and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies. Contemporary insurrectionary anarchism inherits the views and tactics of anti-organizational anarcho-communism [] and illegalism.

Between and , [] with the "perspective of an immanent revolution ", [] who was "opposed to the official workers' movement", which was then in the process of formation general social democratisation. They were opposed not only to political and statist struggles, but also to strikes which put forward wage or other claims, or which were organised by trade unions. This anti-reformist tendency was accompanied by an anti-organisational tendency , and its partisans declared themselves in favour of agitation amongst the unemployed for the expropriation of foodstuffs and other articles, for the expropriatory strike and, in some cases, for ' individual recuperation ' or acts of terrorism".

Since , the group has been in a declared war "against the Mexican state", though this war has been primarily nonviolent and defensive against military , paramilitary and corporate incursions into Chiapas. Their social base is mostly rural indigenous people , but they have some supporters in urban areas and internationally. Unlike other Zapatist spokespeople, Marcos is not an indigenous Maya. These are not recognized by the federal or state governments and they oversee local community programs on food, health and education as well as taxation.

The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata the agrarian reformer [] and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution and sees itself as his ideological heir. Zapatista originally referred to a member of the revolutionary guerrilla movement founded about by Zapata. Zapata and his army and allies, including Pancho Villa , fought for agrarian reform in Mexico. Specifically, they wanted to establish communal land rights for Mexico's indigenous population, which had mostly lost its land to the wealthy elite of European descent.

For us, nothing" Para todos, todo. Para nosotros, nada. Left-wing market anarchism is a left-libertarian and individualist anarchist [] form of libertarian socialism [] [] associated with scholars such as Kevin Carson , [] [] Roderick T. Long , [] [] Charles W. Johnson, [] Brad Spangler, [] Samuel Edward Konkin III , [] Chris Matthew Sciabarra [] and Gary Chartier , [] who stress the value of radically free markets, termed freed markets to distinguish them from the common conception which these libertarians believe to be riddled with statist and capitalist privileges. The genealogy of contemporary market-oriented left-libertarianism, sometimes labeled left-wing market anarchism, [] overlaps to a significant degree with that of Steiner—Vallentyne left-libertarianism as the roots of that tradition are sketched in the book The Origins of Left-Libertarianism.

While with notable exceptions market-oriented libertarians after Tucker tended to ally with the political right, relationships between such libertarians and the New Left thrived in the s, laying the groundwork for modern left-wing market anarchism. Unlike right-libertarians , they believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights [] [] and maintain that natural resources land, oil, gold and trees ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.

Obviously at the heart of the word is communism and, as the shift to communization suggests, communism as a particular activity and process". The association of the term communization with a self-identified ultra-left was cemented in France in the s, where it came to describe not a transition to a higher phase of communism, but a vision of communist revolution itself. The Pamphlet A World Without Money thus states: "insurrection and communisation are intimately linked. There would not be first a period of insurrection and then later, thanks to this insurrection, the transformation of social reality.

The insurrectional process derives its force from communisation itself". In the late s, a close yet not identical sense of communization was developed by the French post-situationist group Tiqqun. In keeping with their ultra-left predecessors, Tiqqun's predilection for the term seems to be its emphasis on communism as an immediate process rather than a far-off goal, but for Tiqqun it is no longer synonymous with the revolution, considered as an historical event, but rather becomes identifiable with all sorts of activities—from squatting and setting up communes to simply sharing—that would typically be understood as pre-revolutionary.

A surge of popular interest in libertarian socialism occurred in Western nations during the s and s. Various small left communist groups emerged around the world, predominantly in the leading capitalist countries. A series of conferences of the communist left began in , with the aim of promoting international and cross-tendency discussion, but these petered out in the s without having increased the profile of the movement or its unity of ideas.

The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like that of Barcelona, Spain. In Denmark, squatters occupied a disused military base and declared the Freetown Christiania , an autonomous haven in central Copenhagen. Around the turn of the 21st century, libertarian socialism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war , anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation movements. Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with police. These actions were precipitated by ad hoc , leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black blocs —other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture , affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet.

One might say that contemporary anarchism is about responsibility, whether sexual, ecological or socio-economic; it flows from an experience of conscience about the manifold ways in which the West ravages the rest; it is an ethical outrage at the yawning inequality, impoverishment and disenfranchisment that is so palpable locally and globally". CGT membership was estimated to be around , for Libertarian socialists in the early 21st century have been involved in the alter-globalization movement, squatter movement; social centers ; infoshops ; anti-poverty groups such as Ontario Coalition Against Poverty and Food Not Bombs ; tenants' unions; housing cooperatives ; intentional communities generally and egalitarian communities ; anti-sexist organizing; grassroots media initiatives; digital media and computer activism; experiments in participatory economics ; anti-racist and anti-fascist groups like Anti-Racist Action and Anti-Fascist Action ; activist groups protecting the rights of immigrants and promoting the free movement of people, such as the No Border network ; worker co-operatives , countercultural and artist groups; and the peace movement.

Libertarian socialism has also more recently played a large part in the global Occupy movement , [] in particular its focus on direct participatory democracy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Libertarian socialist. Socialist anti-authoritarian, anti-statist and libertarian political philosophy. For the branch of anarchism emphasizing mutual aid and sometimes referred to in similar terms, see Social anarchism. This article is about the anti-authoritarian, anti-statist, anti-elitist and libertarian political philosophy within the socialist movement.

For the type of libertarianism stressing both individual freedom and social equality, see Left-libertarianism. For the political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles to socialism, see Liberal socialism. For the variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights, see Social liberalism. Political concepts. Philosophies and tendencies. Significant events. Related topics. See also: Definition of anarchism and libertarianism. Main article: Anti-capitalism. History Outline. International International socialist organisations National Socialist parties. Related lists Category By country Socialists.

Main articles: Anti-authoritarianism and Anti-statism. Schools of thought. Theory Practice. By region. Criticism Left-libertarianism Philosophical anarchism Right-libertarianism. Main articles: Anarcha-feminism , Individualist anarchism , and Queer anarchism. See also: Anarchism and education , Anarchism and issues related to love and sex , Anarchism and religion , Free love , and Freethought. Main article: Anarchism and violence. Anarcho-naturism Anarcho-primitivism Social ecology Veganarchism. Theory and practice. Books and publications. Main article: Anarchism. Main article: Libertarian Marxism. See also: Anarchism and Marxism. Main article: Mutualism economic theory. Main article: Social anarchism. Main article: Individualist anarchism.

Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's dialectic Marx's method Philosophy of nature. Related categories. Karl Marx. Main article: De Leonism. Main article: Council communism. Main article: Left communism. Bordigism Communization Council communism Situationist International. Main article: Johnson—Forest tendency. Main article: Socialisme ou Barbarie. Main article: Situationist International. Can Dialectics Break Bricks? Council for Maintaining the Occupations. Related articles. Main article: Autonomism.

Main article: Democratic socialism. Main article: Libertarian possibilism. Main articles: Eco-socialism , Green anarchism , and Green politics. Main articles: Georgism , Geolibertarianism , and Henry George. Main article: Guild socialism. Main article: Revolutionary syndicalism. Guild socialism Orthodox Marxism Revolutions of Utopian socialism. Co-operative economics Corporatism Labour economics General strike Labour rights Labour unionisation Workers' self-management Mutual aid. Related subjects. Communism Copyleft Corporatism Criticism of capitalism Criticism of copyright Economics of fascism Criticism of wage labour Labour power Libertarian socialism National syndicalism Post-capitalism Revisionism Socialism Yellow syndicalism. Main article: Christian anarchism.

Main article: Gandhism. See also: Gandhian economics and Gandhian socialism. Main article: Platformism. Main article: New Left. Main articles: Communalism and Social ecology theory. Commune model of government Confederation Democratic confederalism Dialectical naturalism Libertarian municipalism Social ecology Sustainability. Main article: Democratic confederalism. Main article: Participism. Main article: Inclusive Democracy. Main article: Insurrectionary anarchism. Main articles: Magonism and Neozapatismo. Main article: Left-wing market anarchism.

Main article: Communization. See also: Contemporary anarchism. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 4 August Sex Marchers. Verso Books. Anarchist Socialism vs. A History of Anarchism. Calcutta: World Press. Stateless Socialism: Anarchism. In Maximoff, G. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin. Farmigton Hill, Minnesota: Gale. In Miller, Wilburn R. ISBN Isn't libertarian socialism an oxymoron?

An Anarchist FAQ. Stirling: AK Press. It implies a classless and anti-authoritarian i. In Gaus, Gerald F. Social Philosophy and Policy. The Murray Bookchin Reader. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Blackwell Publisher.

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