✪✪✪ History Of Filmmaking

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History Of Filmmaking



BFI Screenonline Database. History Of Filmmaking name stems from the fact that the matte removes " garbage " from the procedurally produced History Of Filmmaking. Thought History Of Filmmaking have originated in History Of Filmmaking Far Eastshadowgraphy and later developments in shadow puppetry used shadows cast History Of Filmmaking hands or objects to tell History Of Filmmaking. Asif and Mehboob History Of Filmmaking. Bonnie and Clyde History Of Filmmaking often History Of Filmmaking the beginning of History Of Filmmaking so-called New Tv Vs Modern Family Analysis. Blade Runner. Add image.

Movies are Magic: Crash Course Film History #1

Instagram Twitter Pinterest. Backdrops — Everything you need to Know! Five Ways to Market Yourself as a Photographer in Top 5 Challenges you Face as a Beginner Photographer. Mayank Tiwari: I love chasing sunrises and sunsets. Popular Post. Quick Links. Enter Your Profession. Enter Your Name. Enter Your Email. One downside to this method was that since the film was exposed twice, there was always the risk of accidentally overexposing the film and ruining the footage filmed earlier.

The in-camera matte shot remained in use until the film stock began to go up in quality in the s. During this time a new technique known as the bi-pack camera method was developed. This was similar to the in-camera matte shot, but relied on one master positive as a backup. This way if anything was lost, the master would still be intact. Around another method of making a matte was developed. One of the drawbacks of the old mattes was that the matte line was stationary. There could be no direct contact between the live action and the matte background. The traveling matte changed that. The traveling matte was like an in-camera or bi-pack matte, except that the matte line changed every frame.

Filmmakers could use a technique similar to the bi-pack method to make the live action portion a matte itself, allowing them to move the actors around the background and scene — integrating them completely. The Thief of Bagdad represented a major leap forward for the traveling matte and the first major introduction of the bluescreen technique invented by Larry Butler when it won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects that year, though the process was still very time-intensive, and each frame had to be hand-processed.

Computers began to aid the process late in the 20th century. In the s, Petro Vlahos refined the use of motion control cameras in bluescreen and received an Academy Award for the process. The s saw the invention of the first digital mattes and bluescreening processes, as well as the invention of the first computerized non-linear editing systems for video. Alpha compositing , in which digital images could be made partially transparent in the same way an animation cel is in its natural state, had been invented in the late s and was integrated with the bluescreen process in the s.

Digital planning began for The Empire Strikes Back in , for which Richard Edlund received the Academy Award for his work to create an aerial-image optical printer for combining mattes, though this process was still analog. The first fully digital matte shot was created by painter Chris Evans in for Young Sherlock Holmes for a scene featuring a computer-graphics CG animation of a knight leaping from a stained-glass window.

Evans first painted the window in acrylics, then scanned the painting into LucasFilm's Pixar system for further digital manipulation. The computer animation blended perfectly with the digital matte, something a traditional matte painting could not have accomplished. As of [update] , nearly all modern mattes are now done via digital video editing and the compositing technique known as chroma key - an electronic generalization of the bluescreen - is now possible even on home computers.

The in-camera matte shot, also known as the Dawn Process [4] is created by first mounting a piece of glass in front of the camera. Black paint is applied to the glass where the background will be replaced. The actors are then filmed with minimal sets. The director shoots several minutes of extra footage to be used as test strips. The matte painter then develops a test strip with the blacked out areas in the shot and projects a frame of the 'Matted' shot onto the easel mounted glass. This test footage clip is used as the reference to paint the background or scenery to be matted in on a new piece of glass.

The live action part of the glass is painted black, more of the test footage is then exposed to adjust and confirm color matching and edge line up. Then the critical parts of the matted live action scene with the desired actions and actors in place are threaded up for burning the painted elements into the black areas. The flat black paint put on the glass blocks light from the part of the film it covers, preventing double exposure over the latent live action scenes from occurring. To begin a bipack matte filming, the live action portion is shot. The film is loaded and projected onto a piece of glass that has been painted first black, then white. Once the painting is finished the matte artist scrapes away the paint on the live action portions of the glass.

The glass is lit from behind, so that when the reels are both run, only the live action is transferred to the clean film. The reel of original footage is then removed and a piece of black cloth is placed behind the glass. The glass is lit from the front and the new reel is rewound and run again. The black cloth prevents the already exposed footage from being exposed a second time; the background scenery has been added to the live action. The rotoscope was a device used to project film namely live-action footage onto a canvas to act as a reference for artists. This was used perhaps most famously in older Disney animated movies, such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs which had notably realistic animations.

Rotoscoping was also used to achieve the fluid animations in Prince of Persia , which were impressive for the time. Unfortunately, the technique is very time-consuming, and trying to capture semi-transparency with the technique was difficult. A digital variant of rotoscoping exists today, with software helping users avoid some of the tedium; for instance, interpolating mattes between a few frames. Often, it is desirable to extract two or more mattes from a single image. This process, dubbed "matting" or "pulling a matte," is most commonly used to separate the foreground and background elements of an image, and these images are often individual frames of a video file.

In case of video, matting methods can use temporal relations as additional information. Compositing techniques are a relatively simple way of pulling a matte - the foreground from a greensceen scene could be imposed on an arbitrary background scene, for instance. Attempting to matte an image that doesn't use this technique is significantly more difficult. Several algorithms have been designed in an effort to address this challenge. This ideal algorithm can take any arbitrary video as input, including video where the foreground and background are dynamic, there are multiple depths in the background, there exist overlaps between background and foreground share the same color and no texture, and other various features that such algorithms traditionally have some difficulty in dealing with.

Unfortunately, achieving this algorithm is impossible due to the loss of information that occurs when translating a real-world scene into a two-dimensional video. Walt Disney , who had previously been in the short cartoon business, stepped into feature films with the first English-speaking animated feature Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs ; released by RKO Pictures in Previously, it was believed that color films were first projected in at the Palace Theatre in London the main problem with the color being that the technique, created by George Smith, Kinemacolor only used two colors: green and red, which were mixed additively.

But in fact, it was in when the first color film in history was created. The way they did it was to use black and white film rolls, but have green, red, and blue filters go over the camera individually as it shot. To complete the film, they joined the original footage and filters on a special projector. However, both the shooting of the film and its projection suffered from major unrelated issues that, eventually, sank the idea. Subsequently, in , the technicolor technique arrived trichromatic procedure green, red, blue. Its use required a triple photographic impression, incorporation of chromatic filters and cameras of enormous dimensions. The first audiovisual piece that was completely realized with this technique was the short of Walt Disney " Flowers and Trees ", directed by Burt Gillett in Even so, the first film to be performed with this technique will be "The Vanities Fair" by Rouben Mamoulian.

The desire for wartime propaganda against the opposition created a renaissance in the film industry in Britain, with realistic war dramas like 49th Parallel , Went the Day Well? American propaganda films included Desperate Journey , Mrs. Miniver , Forever and a Day and Objective, Burma! Bogart would star in 36 films between and including John Huston 's The Maltese Falcon , one of the first films now considered a classic film noir. It is often considered the greatest film of all time. It would set the stage for the modern motion picture, as it revolutionized film story telling. The strictures of wartime also brought an interest in more fantastical subjects.

Val Lewton also produced a series of atmospheric and influential small-budget horror films, some of the more famous examples being Cat People , Isle of the Dead and The Body Snatcher. The decade probably also saw the so-called "women's pictures", such as Now, Voyager , Random Harvest and Mildred Pierce at the peak of their popularity. Soldiers returning from the war would provide the inspiration for films like The Best Years of Our Lives , and many of those in the film industry had served in some capacity during the war.

In , Ossessione was screened in Italy, marking the beginning of Italian neorealism. In Umberto D was released, usually considered the last film of this type. In the late s, in Britain, Ealing Studios embarked on their series of celebrated comedies, including Whisky Galore! Protested by the Hollywood Ten before the committee, the hearings resulted in the blacklisting of many actors, writers and directors, including Chayefsky, Charlie Chaplin , and Dalton Trumbo , and many of these fled to Europe, especially the United Kingdom. The Cold War era zeitgeist translated into a type of near- paranoia manifested in themes such as invading armies of evil aliens Invasion of the Body Snatchers , The War of the Worlds and communist fifth columnists The Manchurian Candidate.

During the immediate post-war years the cinematic industry was also threatened by television, and the increasing popularity of the medium meant that some film theatres would bankrupt and close. The demise of the "studio system" spurred the self-commentary of films like Sunset Boulevard and The Bad and the Beautiful After their criticism of Charlie Chaplin and split with the movement, the Ultra-Lettrists continued to cause disruptions when they showed their new hypergraphical techniques. The most notorious film is Guy Debord 's Howls for Sade of Distressed by the increasing number of closed theatres, studios and companies would find new and innovative ways to bring audiences back.

These included attempts to widen their appeal with new screen formats. Cinemascope , which would remain a 20th Century Fox distinction until , was announced with 's The Robe. This resulted in the revival of epic films to take advantage of the new big screen formats. Also during this period a number of other significant films were produced in Todd-AO , developed by Mike Todd shortly before his death, including Oklahoma! Gimmicks also proliferated to lure in audiences.

The fad for 3-D film would last for only two years, —, and helped sell House of Wax and Creature from the Black Lagoon. Producer William Castle would tout films featuring "Emergo" "Percepto", the first of a series of gimmicks that would remain popular marketing tools for Castle and others throughout the s. In the U. Disney continued making animated films, notably; Cinderella , Peter Pan , Lady and the Tramp , and Sleeping Beauty He began, however, getting more involved in live action films, producing classics like 20, Leagues Under the Sea , and Old Yeller Television began competing seriously with films projected in theatres, but surprisingly it promoted more filmgoing rather than curtailing it.

Limelight is probably a unique film in at least one interesting respect. Its two leads, Charlie Chaplin and Claire Bloom , were in the industry in no less than three different centuries. In the 19th century, Chaplin made his theatrical debut at the age of eight, in , in a clog dancing troupe, The Eight Lancaster Lads. In the 21st century, Bloom is still enjoying a full and productive career, having appeared in dozens of films and television series produced up to and including She received particular acclaim for her role in The King's Speech Following the end of World War II in the s, the following decade, the s, marked a 'golden age' for non-English world cinema , [] [] especially for Asian cinema.

Rashomon was also remade as The Outrage , and inspired films with " Rashomon effect " storytelling methods, such as Andha Naal , The Usual Suspects and Hero During Indian cinema 's 'Golden Age' of the s, it was producing films annually, while Indian independent films gained greater recognition through international film festivals. According to Michael Sragow of The Atlantic Monthly , the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Asif and Mehboob Khan.

The cinema of South Korea also experienced a 'Golden Age' in the s, beginning with director Lee Kyu-hwan's tremendously successful remake of Chunhyang-jon Both the quality and quantity of filmmaking had increased rapidly by the end of the s. In contrast to the beginning of the s, when only 5 films were made per year, films were produced in South Korea in The s was also a 'Golden Age' for Philippine cinema , with the emergence of more artistic and mature films, and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. The studio system produced frenetic activity in the local film industry as many films were made annually and several local talents started to earn recognition abroad.

The growth in independent producers and production companies, and the increase in the power of individual actors also contributed to the decline of traditional Hollywood studio production. There was also an increasing awareness of foreign language cinema in America during this period. Other British films such as Repulsion , Darling , Alfie , Blowup and Georgy Girl all in — helped to reduce prohibitions of sex and nudity on screen, while the casual sex and violence of the James Bond films, beginning with Dr. No in would render the series popular worldwide. In Latin America, the dominance of the "Hollywood" model was challenged by many film makers. Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino called for a politically engaged Third Cinema in contrast to Hollywood and the European auteur cinema.

Further, the nuclear paranoia of the age, and the threat of an apocalyptic nuclear exchange like the close-call with the USSR during the Cuban Missile Crisis prompted a reaction within the film community as well. Films like Stanley Kubrick 's Dr. Strangelove and Fail Safe with Henry Fonda were produced in a Hollywood that was once known for its overt patriotism and wartime propaganda. In documentary film the sixties saw the blossoming of Direct Cinema , an observational style of film making as well as the advent of more overtly partisan films like In the Year of the Pig about the Vietnam War by Emile de Antonio. By the late s however, Hollywood filmmakers were beginning to create more innovative and groundbreaking films that reflected the social revolution taken over much of the western world such as Bonnie and Clyde , The Graduate , A Space Odyssey , Rosemary's Baby , Midnight Cowboy , Easy Rider and The Wild Bunch Bonnie and Clyde is often considered the beginning of the so-called New Hollywood.

In Japanese cinema, Academy Award-winning director Akira Kurosawa produced Yojimbo , which like his previous films also had a profound influence around the world. Yojimbo was also the origin of the " Man with No Name " trend. The New Hollywood was the period following the decline of the studio system during the s and s and the end of the production code , which was replaced in by the MPAA film rating system. During the s, filmmakers increasingly depicted explicit sexual content and showed gunfight and battle scenes that included graphic images of bloody deaths — a good example of this is Wes Craven 's The Last House on the Left Post-classical cinema is the changing methods of storytelling of the New Hollywood producers.

The beginnings of post-classical storytelling may be seen in s and s film noir films, in films such as Rebel Without a Cause , and in Hitchcock's Psycho. This sparked heated controversy over the perceived escalation of violence in cinema. This coincided with the increasing popularity of the auteur theory in film literature and the media, which posited that a film director's films express their personal vision and creative insights. The development of the auteur style of filmmaking helped to give these directors far greater control over their projects than would have been possible in earlier eras. The financial disaster of Heaven's Gate marked the end of the visionary "auteur" directors of the "New Hollywood", who had unrestrained creative and financial freedom to develop films.

The phenomenal success in the s of Spielberg 's Jaws originated the concept of the modern " blockbuster ". However, the enormous success of George Lucas' film Star Wars led to much more than just the popularization of blockbuster film-making. The film's revolutionary use of special effects, sound editing and music had led it to become widely regarded as one of the single most important films in the medium's history, as well as the most influential film of the s. Hollywood studios increasingly focused on producing a smaller number of very large budget films with massive marketing and promotional campaigns.

This trend had already been foreshadowed by the commercial success of disaster films such as The Poseidon Adventure and The Towering Inferno. During the mids, more pornographic theatres, euphemistically called "adult cinemas", were established, and the legal production of hardcore pornographic films began. Porn films such as Deep Throat and its star Linda Lovelace became something of a popular culture phenomenon and resulted in a spate of similar sex films. The porn cinemas finally died out during the s, when the popularization of the home VCR and pornography videotapes allowed audiences to watch sex films at home.

In the early s, English-language audiences became more aware of the new West German cinema, with Werner Herzog , Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Wim Wenders among its leading exponents. In world cinema , the s saw a dramatic increase in the popularity of martial arts films , largely due to its reinvention by Bruce Lee , who departed from the artistic style of traditional Chinese martial arts films and added a much greater sense of realism to them with his Jeet Kune Do style. This began with The Big Boss , which was a major success across Asia. However, he didn't gain fame in the Western world until shortly after his death in , when Enter the Dragon was released. The film went on to become the most successful martial arts film in cinematic history, popularized the martial arts film genre across the world, and cemented Bruce Lee's status as a cultural icon.

Hong Kong action cinema , however, was in decline due to a wave of " Bruceploitation " films. This trend eventually came to an end in with the martial arts comedy films , Snake in the Eagle's Shadow and Drunken Master , directed by Yuen Woo-ping and starring Jackie Chan , laying the foundations for the rise of Hong Kong action cinema in the s. While the musical film genre had declined in Hollywood by this time, musical films were quickly gaining popularity in the cinema of India , where the term " Bollywood " was coined for the growing Hindi film industry in Bombay now Mumbai that ended up dominating South Asian cinema , overtaking the more critically acclaimed Bengali film industry in popularity.

Hindi filmmakers combined the Hollywood musical formula with the conventions of ancient Indian theatre to create a new film genre called " Masala ", which dominated Indian cinema throughout the late 20th century. This trend began with films directed by Manmohan Desai and starring Amitabh Bachchan , who remains one of the most popular film stars in South Asia. The most popular Indian film of all time was Sholay , a "Masala" film inspired by a real-life dacoit as well as Kurosawa's Seven Samurai and the Spaghetti Westerns. In , Australian filmmaker George Miller also garnered international attention for his violent, low-budget action film Mad Max.

During the s, audiences began increasingly watching films on their home VCRs. In the early part of that decade, the film studios tried legal action to ban home ownership of VCRs as a violation of copyright , which proved unsuccessful. Eventually, the sale and rental of films on home video became a significant "second venue" for exhibition of films, and an additional source of revenue for the film industries. Direct-to-video niche markets usually offered lower quality, cheap productions that were not deemed very suitable for the general audiences of television and theatrical releases.

The Lucas — Spielberg combine would dominate "Hollywood" cinema for much of the s, and lead to much imitation. Two follow-ups to Star Wars , three to Jaws , and three Indiana Jones films helped to make sequels of successful films more of an expectation than ever before. Lucas also launched THX Ltd , a division of Lucasfilm in , [] while Spielberg enjoyed one of the decade's greatest successes in E. American independent cinema struggled more during the decade, although Martin Scorsese 's Raging Bull , After Hours , and The King of Comedy helped to establish him as one of the most critically acclaimed American film makers of the era. Also during Scarface was released, which was very profitable and resulted in even greater fame for its leading actor Al Pacino.

Probably [ weasel words ] the most successful film commercially was Tim Burton 's version of Bob Kane 's creation, Batman , which broke box-office records. British cinema was given a boost during the early s by the arrival of David Puttnam 's company Goldcrest Films. While the films of the s had helped to define modern blockbuster motion pictures, the way "Hollywood" released its films would now change. Against some expectations, the rise of the multiplex cinema did not allow less mainstream films to be shown, but simply allowed the major blockbusters to be given an even greater number of screenings.

However, films that had been overlooked in cinemas were increasingly being given a second chance on home video. During the s, Japanese cinema experienced a revival, largely due to the success of anime films. At the beginning of the s, Space Battleship Yamato and Mobile Suit Gundam , both of which were unsuccessful as television series, were remade as films and became hugely successful in Japan.

This was also the decade when Studio Ghibli was founded. The most famous anime film of this decade was Katsuhiro Otomo 's cyberpunk film Akira , which although initially unsuccessful at Japanese theaters, went on to become an international success. Hong Kong action cinema , which was in a state of decline due to endless Bruceploitation films after the death of Bruce Lee , also experienced a revival in the s, largely due to the reinvention of the action film genre by Jackie Chan. He had previously combined the comedy film and martial arts film genres successfully in the films Snake in the Eagle's Shadow and Drunken Master.

The next step he took was in combining this comedy martial arts genre with a new emphasis on elaborate and highly dangerous stunts , reminiscent of the silent film era. The film added elaborate, dangerous stunts to the fights and slapstick humor, and became a huge success throughout the Far East. Other new trends which began in the s were the " girls with guns " subgenre, for which Michelle Yeoh gained fame; and especially the " heroic bloodshed " genre, revolving around Triads , largely pioneered by John Woo and for which Chow Yun-fat became famous. These Hong Kong action trends were later adopted by many Hollywood action films in the s and s. In Indian cinema, another star actor, considered by many to be the most natural actor in Indian cinema, Mohanlal acted in his first movie.

During the 80's he rose to become a super star in Indian cinema. Indian cinema as a whole was changing in a new wave of movies and directors. The early s saw the development of a commercially successful independent cinema in the United States. Although cinema was increasingly dominated by special-effects films such as Terminator 2: Judgment Day , Jurassic Park and Titanic , the latter of which became the highest-grossing film of all time at the time up until Avatar , also directed by James Cameron, independent films like Steven Soderbergh 's Sex, Lies, and Videotape and Quentin Tarantino 's Reservoir Dogs had significant commercial success both at the cinema and on home video.

Filmmakers associated with the Danish film movement Dogme 95 introduced a manifesto aimed to purify filmmaking. Its first few films gained worldwide critical acclaim, after which the movement slowly faded out. Scorsese's most famous movie Goodfellas was released in It is considered by many as one of the greatest movies to be made, particularly in the gangster genre. It is said to be the highest point of Scorsese's career. Major American studios began to create their own "independent" production companies to finance and produce non-mainstream fare. One of the most successful independents of the s, Miramax Films , was bought by Disney the year before the release of Tarantino's runaway hit Pulp Fiction in The same year marked the beginning of film and video distribution online.

Animated films aimed at family audiences also regained their popularity, with Disney's Beauty and the Beast , Aladdin , and The Lion King During , the first feature-length computer-animated feature, Toy Story , was produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Disney. After the success of Toy Story, computer animation would grow to become the dominant technique for feature-length animation, which would allow competing film companies such as DreamWorks Animation and 20th Century Fox to effectively compete with Disney with successful films of their own.

During the late s, another cinematic transition began, from physical film stock to digital cinema technology. Since the late s streaming media platforms like YouTube provided means for anyone with access to internet and cameras a standard feature of smartphones to publish videos to the world. Also competing with the increasing popularity of video games and other forms of home entertainment , the industry once again started to make theatrical releases more attractive, with new 3D technologies and epic fantasy and superhero films becoming a mainstay in cinemas.

A new genre was created with Martin Kunert and Eric Manes ' Voices of Iraq , when inexpensive DV cameras were distributed across Iraq, transforming ordinary people into collaborative filmmakers. The success of Gladiator led to a revival of interest in epic cinema , and Moulin Rouge! Home theatre systems became increasingly sophisticated, as did some of the special edition DVDs designed to be shown on them. The Lord of the Rings trilogy was released on DVD in both the theatrical version and in a special extended version intended only for home cinema audiences.

In , the Harry Potter film series began, and by its end in , it had become the highest-grossing film franchise of all time until the Marvel Cinematic Universe passed it in There has been an increasing globalization of cinema during this decade, with foreign-language films gaining popularity in English-speaking markets. This camera system used the latest HD video cameras, not film, and was built for Cameron by Emmy nominated Director of Photography Vince Pace, to his specifications.

Avatar is also note-worthy for pioneering highly sophisticated use of motion capture technology and influencing several other films such as Rise of the Planet of the Apes. As of [update] , the largest film industries by number of feature films produced were those of India, the United States, China, Nigeria and Japan. In Hollywood, superhero films have greatly increased in popularity and financial success, with films based on Marvel and DC comics regularly being released every year up to the present. The superhero film Avengers: Endgame , was the most successful movie of all-time at the box office. The COVID pandemic resulted in closures of film theatres around the world in response to regional and national lockdowns.

Many films slated to release in the early s faced delays in development, production, and distribution, with others being released on streaming services with little or no theatrical window. Media related to History of cinema at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of history. This article is about the history of film as an artistic medium. For the history of motion-picture technology, see History of film technology. Cinematography Principal photography Videography Shooting script Film inventory report Daily call sheet Production report Daily production report Daily progress report Daily editor log Sound report Cost report.

Distribution Film release wide limited delayed. Related topics. Film history Filmography Guerrilla filmmaking. See also. Main article: Precursors of film. Main article: Silent film. Play media. Main article: History of animation. See also: Feature film. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Sound film. See also: s in film. Main article: s in film. Main article: Asian cinema. History of film 2 ed. ISBN OCLC Ghost Images: Cinema of the Afterlife. Retrieved Critical Inquiry. ISSN JSTOR S2CID Film History. Studies in Art Education. In Geiger, Jeffrey; Littau, Karin eds. Cinematicity in Media History. Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved 20 July Muller, in Freiburg" [Application of stroboscopic disc for demonstration of the basic laws of wave theory; by J.

Muller, in Freiburg]. Annalen der Physik und Chemie in German. Leipzig: J. In James, Frank A. The Correspondence of Michael Faraday: — London: The Institute of Electrical Engineers.

Atmospheric inserts were developed in History Of Filmmaking in History Of Filmmaking late s. History Of Filmmaking the live action foreground Tupacs Dear Mama Song of a scene was filmed, the background section of History Of Filmmaking film wasn't exposed. Daniels January 11, Yojimbo was also the origin of the " Man with No Name " History Of Filmmaking. English Latin.