⒈ Vygotsky Language Development
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Theories of language development: Nativist, learning, interactionist - MCAT - Khan Academy
He developed his theories at around the same time as Jean Piaget was starting to develop his ideas 's and 30's , but he died at the age of 38, and so his theories are incomplete - although some of his writings are still being translated from Russian. No single principle such as Piaget's equilibration can account for development. Individual development cannot be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which it is embedded. Higher mental processes in the individual have their origin in social processes.
This contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does. Hence Vygotsky assumes cognitive development varies across cultures, whereas Piaget states cognitive development is mostly universal across cultures. Cognitive development stems from social interactions from guided learning within the zone of proximal development as children and their partner's co-construct knowledge. In contrast, Piaget maintains that cognitive development stems largely from independent explorations in which children construct knowledge of their own. According to Piaget, language depends on thought for its development i.
For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age, producing verbal thought inner speech. Adults transmit their culture's tools of intellectual adaptation that children internalize. In contrast, Piaget emphasizes the importance of peers, as peer interaction promotes social perspective taking.
Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic abilities for intellectual development called 'elementary mental functions' Piaget focuses on motor reflexes and sensory abilities. Eventually, through interaction within the sociocultural environment, these are developed into more sophisticated and effective mental processes which Vygotsky refers to as 'higher mental functions. For example, memory in young children this is limited by biological factors. However, culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop.
For example, in western culture, children learn note-taking to aid memory, but in pre-literate societies, other strategies must be developed, such as tying knots in a string to remember, or carrying pebbles, or repetition of the names of ancestors until large numbers can be repeated. Vygotsky, therefore, sees cognitive functions, even those carried out alone, as affected by the beliefs, values, and tools of intellectual adaptation of the culture in which a person develops and therefore socio-culturally determined.
The tools of intellectual adaptation, therefore, vary from culture to culture - as in the memory example. However, Vygotsky placed more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development, whereas Piaget emphasized self-initiated discovery. According to Vygotsky , much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor. Vygotsky refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue.
The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor often the parent or teacher then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. Shaffer gives the example of a young girl who is given her first jigsaw. Alone, she performs poorly in attempting to solve the puzzle. As the child becomes more competent, the father allows the child to work more independently. According to Vygotsky, this type of social interaction involving cooperative or collaborative dialogue promotes cognitive development. The more knowledgeable other MKO is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept.
Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. For example, who is more likely to know more about the newest teenage music groups, how to win at the most recent PlayStation game, or how to correctly perform the newest dance craze - a child or their parents?
In fact, the MKO need not be a person at all. Some companies, to support employees in their learning process, are now using electronic performance support systems. Electronic tutors have also been used in educational settings to facilitate and guide students through the learning process. The key to MKOs is that they must have or be programmed with more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does. The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other is integrally related to the second important principle of Vygotsky's work, the Zone of Proximal Development.
This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. For example, the child could not solve the jigsaw puzzle in the example above by itself and would have taken a long time to do so if at all , but was able to solve it following interaction with the father, and has developed competence at this skill that will be applied to future jigsaws. Vygotsky sees the Zone of Proximal Development as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own - developing higher mental functions. Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies.
He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skillful peers - within the zone of proximal development. Freund conducted a study in which children had to decide which items of furniture should be placed in particular areas of a dolls house. Some children were allowed to play with their mother in a similar situation before they attempted it alone zone of proximal development while others were allowed to work on this by themselves Piaget's discovery learning.
Freund found that those who had previously worked with their mother ZPD showed the greatest improvement compared with their first attempt at the task. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Vygotsky differentiates between three forms of language: social speech which is external communication used to talk to others typical from the age of two ; private speech typical from the age of three which is directed to the self and serves an intellectual function; and finally private speech goes underground, diminishing in audibility as it takes on a self-regulating function and is transformed into silent inner speech typical from the age of seven.
For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age. At this point speech and thought become interdependent: thought becomes verbal, speech becomes representational. When this happens, children's monologues internalized to become inner speech. The internalization of language is important as it drives cognitive development. It still remains speech, i.
But while in external speech thought is embodied in words, in inner speech words dies as they bring forth thought. Inner speech is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings. Vygotsky was the first psychologist to document the importance of private speech. He considered private speech as the transition point between social and inner speech, the moment in development where language and thought unite to constitute verbal thinking. Thus private speech, in Vygotsky's view, was the earliest manifestation of inner speech.
Indeed, private speech is more similar in its form and function to inner speech than social speech. Private speech is 'typically defined, in contrast to social speech, as speech addressed to the self not to others for the purpose of self-regulation rather than communication. Unlike inner speech which is covert i. Through private speech, children begin to collaborate with themselves in the same way a more knowledgeable other e. Vygotsky sees "private speech" as a means for children to plan activities and strategies and therefore aid their development. Private speech is the use of language for self-regulation of behavior. Vygotsky believed that children who engaged in large amounts of private speech are more socially competent than children who do not use it extensively.
Children use private speech most often during intermediate difficulty tasks because they are attempting to self-regulate by verbally planning and organizing their thoughts Winsler et al. The frequency and content of private speech are then correlated with behavior or performance. For example, private speech appears to be functionally related to cognitive performance: It appears at times of difficulty with a task. Berk provided empirical support for the notion of private speech. She found that most private speech exhibited by children serves to describe or guide the child's actions.
Berk also discovered than child engaged in private speech more often when working alone on challenging tasks and also when their teacher was not immediately available to help them. Furthermore, Berk also found that private speech develops similarly in all children regardless of cultural background. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that there exist high positive correlations between rates of social interaction and private speech in children. He developed the Zone of Proximal Development ZPD which is the distance between what a child can do independently and what a child can do with support from an adult.
Therefore, the main role of an adult is to help children bridge the distance between what they can do independently and what they can do with some support. The cognitive theory focuses on how people learn from the processing of information. It discusses the concept such as memory, problem-solving as well as decision-making. Like behaviourists, they observed actions empirically to make interpretations about the internal mental progression Yilmaz, These theories include: the behaviorist theory, the innatist theory, the constructivist theory, and the social interaction theory. First, B. F Skinner, a psychologist, developed the behaviorist theory of oral language development.
Skinner believed that children learned by operate conditioning, which is rewards for accomplishing a goal. Interactions between an adult and child during the early years are vital for their development and learning, as they are still grasping day-to-day skills and understanding new life concepts. Children learn and develop their language and literacy skills through interactions with others; they begin by absorbing, listening and then imitating and practising Buckely Learning environments that promote language and literacy development are environments which expose and encourage children to interact with various forms of print.
Behaviourists such as Skinner argue that language acquisition and development are learned through observation of behaviours in their social environment; these behaviours are then practiced through imitation by the child. Children learn through imitating what they see others do or how they behaviour, play is the most important learning tool for children to construct meaning of these behaviours. Dramatic play in early childhood settings allow for children to recreate environments they may have visited and share their experiences with their peers, such as going to the doctors.
The Learning perspective argues that children imitate what they see and hear,and that children learn from punishment and reinforcement. The main theorist associated with the learning perspective is B. Skinner argued that adults shape the speech of children by reinforcing the babbling of infants that sound most like words. Skinner,,as cited in Shaffer,et. This theory explains that the language starts on what they see or hear, the children will imitate what they see on their parents or the people around them. The guardian or the parents will reinforce the students and give them punishment so the children or the students will develop themselves. Interactionist Theory.
Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social. Interactionists argue that language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. The Interactionists argue that "children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" Bates,;Tomasello,, as cited in shaffer,et al. The main theorist associated with interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky. Interactionists focus on Vygotsky 's model of collaborative learning Shaffer,et al.
Collaborative learning is the idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically. Show More. Watson's Theory Of Behaviorism Words 3 Pages When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Read More. Critical Relational Frames Words 5 Pages I learn many new strategies that can be used to help infants and toddlers increase their language acquisition. Piaget Vs Vygotsky Words 2 Pages He believes that children are active learners who gain knowledge from their surroundings. Redl And Skinner's Theory Of Classroom Management Words 5 Pages In contrast to Redl and Wattenberg 's theories about teachers; Skinner 's theory states that behaving students will continue to demonstrate positive behavior.
Piaget Vs Vygotsky Essay Words 2 Pages Each theorist discussed about how infants are able to develop some control over their environment, language and problem solving. Nativist Theory Of Language Acquisition Words 6 Pages The questionable and ambiguous nature surrounding the notion that children play an active role in acquiring language has been debated by many theorists of different perspectives. How Does Lev Vygotsky Contribute To Children's Language Development Words 5 Pages Lev Vygotsky provided many contributions to development that impacted what we know about how children learn and the kinds of environment that should be provided for optimal development of language.
Assessment Task 2: Linking Theory To Practice Words 6 Pages Interactions between an adult and child during the early years are vital for their development and learning, as they are still grasping day-to-day skills and understanding new life concepts.Lev Vygotsky was a seminal Russian psychologist vygotsky language development is best known for his sociocultural theory. The traditional English spelling of his vygotsky language development name nowadays is 'Vygotsky'. She went back to vygotsky language development to vygotsky language development anthropology and psychology and finally, inwas asked to vygotsky language development charge of fifty vygotsky language development from the vygotsky language development, desolate streets vygotsky language development the San Edward O. Wilsons Intelligent Evolution slum in vygotsky language development adolf hitlers childhood of Rome.