✪✪✪ How Does Social Diversity Work In The Same Way
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If the group is an open group,  where membership boundaries are relatively permeable, group members can enter and leave the group as they see fit often via at least one of the aforementioned Principles of Attraction. If a group is highly cohesive , it will likely engage in processes that contribute to cohesion levels, especially when recruiting new members, who can add to a group's cohesion, or destabilize it.
Classic examples of groups with high cohesion are fraternities , sororities , gangs , and cults , which are all noted for their recruitment process, especially their initiation or hazing. In all groups, formal and informal initiations add to a group's cohesion and strengthens the bond between the individual and group by demonstrating the exclusiveness of group membership as well as the recruit's dedication to the group. Initiation is also important for recruitment because it can mitigate any cognitive dissonance in potential group members. In some instances, such as cults, recruitment can also be referred to as conversion. Kelman's Theory of Conversion  identifies 3 stages of conversion: compliance individual will comply or accept group's views, but not necessarily agree with them , identification member begins to mimic group's actions, values, characteristics, etc.
This outlines the process of how new members can become deeply connected to the group. If one brings a small collection of strangers together in a restricted space and environment, provides a common goal and maybe a few ground rules, then a highly probable course of events will follow. Interaction between individuals is the basic requirement. At first, individuals will differentially interact in sets of twos or threes while seeking to interact with those with whom they share something in common: i. Relationships will develop some stability in these small sets, in that individuals may temporarily change from one set to another, but will return to the same pairs or trios rather consistently and resist change.
Particular twosomes and threesomes will stake out their special spots within the overall space. Again depending on the common goal, eventually twosomes and threesomes will integrate into larger sets of six or eight, with corresponding revisions of territory, dominance-ranking, and further differentiation of roles. All of this seldom takes place without some conflict or disagreement: for example, fighting over the distribution of resources, the choices of means and different subgoals, the development of what are appropriate norms, rewards and punishments. Some of these conflicts will be territorial in nature: i.
But most will be involved with struggles for status, ranging from mild protests to serious verbal conflicts and even dangerous violence. By analogy to animal behavior, sociologists may term these behaviors territorial behaviors and dominance behaviors. Depending on the pressure of the common goal and on the various skills of individuals, differentiations of leadership, dominance, or authority will develop. Once these relationships solidify, with their defined roles, norms, and sanctions, a productive group will have been established. Aggression is the mark of unsettled dominance order. Productive group cooperation requires that both dominance order and territorial arrangements identity, self-concept be settled with respect to the common goal and within the particular group.
Some individuals may withdraw from interaction or be excluded from the developing group. Depending on the number of individuals in the original collection of strangers, and the number of "hangers-on" that are tolerated, one or more competing groups of ten or less may form, and the competition for territory and dominance will then also be manifested in the inter group transactions. Two or more people in interacting situations will over time develop stable territorial relationships.
As described above, these may or may not develop into groups. But stable groups can also break up in to several sets of territorial relationships. There are numerous reasons for stable groups to "malfunction" or to disperse, but essentially this is because of loss of compliance with one or more elements of the definition of group provided by Sherif [ citation needed ]. The two most common causes of a malfunctioning group are the addition of too many individuals, and the failure of the leader to enforce a common purpose, though malfunctions may occur due to a failure of any of the other elements i. In a society, there is a need for more people to participate in cooperative endeavors than can be accommodated by a few separate groups.
Private companies, corporations, government agencies, clubs, and so on have all developed comparable if less formal and standardized systems when the number of members or employees exceeds the number that can be accommodated in an effective group. Not all larger social structures require the cohesion that may be found in the small group. Consider the neighborhood, the country club , or the megachurch , which are basically territorial organizations who support large social purposes. Any such large organizations may need only islands of cohesive leadership. For a functioning group to attempt to add new members in a casual way is a certain prescription for failure, loss of efficiency, or disorganization.
The number of functioning members in a group can be reasonably flexible between five and ten, and a long-standing cohesive group may be able to tolerate a few hangers on. The key concept is that the value and success of a group is obtained by each member maintaining a distinct, functioning identity in the minds of each of the members. The cognitive limit to this span of attention in individuals is often set at seven. Rapid shifting of attention can push the limit to about ten. After ten, subgroups will inevitably start to form with the attendant loss of purpose, dominance-order, and individuality, with confusion of roles and rules.
The standard classroom with twenty to forty pupils and one teacher offers a rueful example of one supposed leader juggling a number of subgroups. Weakening of the common purpose once a group is well established can be attributed to: adding new members; unsettled conflicts of identities i. The actual loss of a leader is frequently fatal to a group, unless there was lengthy preparation for the transition. The loss of the leader tends to dissolve all dominance relationships, as well as weakening dedication to common purpose, differentiation of roles, and maintenance of norms.
The most common symptoms of a troubled group are loss of efficiency, diminished participation, or weakening of purpose, as well as an increase in verbal aggression. Often, if a strong common purpose is still present, a simple reorganization with a new leader and a few new members will be sufficient to re-establish the group, which is somewhat easier than forming an entirely new group. This is the most common factor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Two or more humans who interact with one another.
For group structures in business, see Corporate group. For the city in Georgia, see Social Circle, Georgia. Not to be confused with Social club. S Ghurye s Irawati Karve M. Merton Theda Skocpol Dorothy E. Conflict theory Critical theory Structural functionalism Positivism Social constructionism. Main article: Types of social groups. Society portal. Tajfel, H. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 15— Social Psychological and Personality Science.
Tajfel ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc. Handbook of small group research. New York: Macmillan Publishers. Sherif , An Outline of Social Psychology rev. Administrative Behavior 3rd ed. New York. Free Press. Turner An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. Worchel eds. Brown, R. Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell. Group Dynamics 5 ed. Groups: Interaction and Performance. Group Dynamics 5th ed. New York: Wadsworth.
ISBN Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original on University Of Queensland. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. PMC PMID The Gerontologist. Chicago Tribune. The Evanston Review. Psychological Bulletin. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. I think that identity will increasingly be part of the conversation. I think some of the most profound diversity we experience in life has to do with diversity of thought. Diversity initiatives can have important and interesting social justice benefits, but the real reason you want to pursue diversity programs is for innovation.
You want diversity of thought. Differences in race, gender, and socioeconomic background are three characteristics, but so are differences in learning style or differences in professional field. If a group has an ability to create dialogue, diversity of thought helps them not get into groupthink. On the whole, almost everybody knows the difference between right and wrong. So how do you help people, in the heat of the moment, when they let go of that and use some form of contingent morality or expediency or self-justification as an argument to do something that ends up being a bad thing?
We need to teach people to have better conversations, more dialogue, with people who have differing views. Because the world changes. How do you come up with innovative ideas, unless you have a spectrum of ideas to examine? This is where emotional intelligence and social intelligence come in. Leaders need some degree of emotional intelligence to rise above our need to justify or validate ourselves, which is what happens when we seek people who are just like us in their thinking.
And we need a certain amount of social competency to be able to engage people who do have differences of ideas and perspectives. The default condition for the human organism, neurologically and hormonally, is to protect itself. That defensive posture closes down our ability to learn. We go into a state of cognitive and perceptual impairment. My work looks at what happens when people behave in gender-counter-stereotypical ways. We find that when they go against stereotypes, people generally lose status. And traditional organizational power and dominance behaviors, like talking a lot or expressing anger, really only work for men.
And it may even hurt. I have other studies that show that when women dominate the conversation in a meeting or show anger, they experience status decreases. I used to work in the Senate, and I was fascinated by how many times female senators making their standard stump speeches would talk about how they never intended to become a politician in the first place. I never saw a male senator do that. But these women are masters of impression management. They know that this is an effective way to present themselves to the public. That was the inspiration for a study.
We found that if people inferred that a woman had an intention to get power, or if she explicitly said that she was looking for a position of power, they were less likely to vote her into office. But people were more likely to vote for a man when he explicitly expressed or they inferred that he had that intention. A strong desire for power on the part of women is very much violating a gender stereotype that women should be modest and play more of a backseat role. So, it looks like men and women should use a different set of tools if they want to get ahead or maintain their status and power. When you actually ask people if women should be able to express anger at work, they say it is okay. But when we randomly assign people to view one of the scenarios, they will show the bias against the people enacting counter-stereotypical behavior.
This is a great thing for women to do. And vice versa. So things like expressing sadness or asking for a lot of help in a professional context might not be good tactics for men. Niloufar Molavi Tax Partner and U. Chief Diversity Officer, PricewaterhouseCoopers. Diversity can and should be a critical component of the innovation that leaders are driving in their organization, and it can and should be a competitive advantage for them. Research shows that diverse groups outperform homogeneous ones.
I think of PwC as being in the business of serving clients; for us, innovation means solutions that we bring to our clients. And if we have people who come from different perspectives at the table, the solutions that we bring to our clients, the way we interact, and the relationships we build with our clients are going to distinguish us from our competitors. Demographic trends indicate that women and minorities are the fastest-growing segments of the U. By cultural dexterity, we mean the ability to connect across myriad areas, backgrounds, and focuses that are different.
For working parents, and that often tends to be working mothers, formal flexibility is very important. So we have a number of different programs allowing individuals to work reduced hours, work from home, or arrange job-sharing. Individuals that enter this program are assigned a PwC coach and have access to all the training that the firm provides to keep their skills current. They stay connected with the firm.Merton Theda Skocpol How Does Social Diversity Work In The Same Way Stickoff: The Vietnam War. Administrative Behavior 3rd ed. All you need for the perfect window Ocean Acidification In Washington nook is a How Does Social Diversity Work In The Same Way seat, a few good books, and versatile Polywood shutters for light control.